Simian T-cell lymphotropic/leukemia virus (STLV) type 3
Qualitative detection of STLV Type 3 by polymerase chain
T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) is divided into two serologically
and genetically distinct types (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2). Both types
have a simian relative: HTLV-1 is related to simian T-cell
leukemia virus type 1 (STLV-1) and HTLV-2 is related to STLV-2.
STLV-1 infects a wide range of wild nonhuman primates (NHPs).
Natural infection with STLV-1 can be found among macaques,
guenons, mangabeys, baboons, and apes in Asia and Africa.
However, STLV-2 has only been identified in captive bonobos (Pan
paniscus). The natural occurrence of STLV-2 is still
unknown. HTLVs and STLVs are collectively called primate T-cell
leukemia virus (PTLV).
third type of the STLV group (STLV-L or STLV-3) was isolated
from captive hamadryas baboons (Papio
hamadryas) in Belgium . The prototype strain of
STLV-L (PH969) was serologically more closely related to STLV-2.
Very recently, a few other STLV-3 strains were characterized in
different wild-caught monkey species living either in East
(Ethiopia) or Central (Cameroon) Africa. These divergent viruses
were found in two Cercocebus
species (strains STLV-3/CTO-604 and STLV-3/CTO-602)
and in two Cercopithecus species (strains STLV-3 CNI-227 and STLV-3
CNI-217). Regarding East Africa, a serological survey in
wilderness-dwelling nonhuman primates performed in Ethiopia
reported a high prevalence of STLV-3 and the result was
confirmed by PCR analysis.
virus isolation can be used to diagnose STLV-3 virus infection
and determine carrier status, a long period of time is required
to obtain results. Viral culture is not very sensitive or
specific, and it increases the potential risk of laboratorians
contacting this virus. Serological testing for STLV-3 is
difficult because of the close antigenic relation between
surface antigens among the PTLV family.
detection by PCR is the most rapid, sensitive and specific
method for diagnosis of this infection and confirmation of
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Help ensure that animal colonies are free of STLV-3
Early prevention of spread of this virus among a colony
Minimize personnel exposure to this virus
Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines
that derive from primates
Specimen requirement: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top)
types other than those listed here, please call to confirm
specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See shipping
instructions for more information.
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