Need serology?
Yes, we're still the PCR experts. But Zoologix also performs ELISA antibody tests for...

SRV
Herpes B
SIV
STLV
Measles
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C

* * *

Zoologix performs primate infectious disease tests by PCR for...

Adenoviruses

Aspergillus

B virus

Babesia

Baboon endogenous virus

Baylisascaris procyonis

Borrelia burgdorferi

Campylobacter

Chagas' disease

Chlamydia pneumoniae

Chlamydophila trachomatis

Clostridium

Cronobacter sakazakii

Cryptosporidium

Cytomegalovirus, baboon

Cytomegalovirus, chimpanzee

Cytomegalovirus, human

Cytomegalovirus, macaque

Cytomegalovirus, simian

Dengue

Ebola

E. coli O157:H7

E. coli panel

Encephalitis, Japanese

Encephalitis, St. Louis

Encephalomyocarditis (EMCV)

Entamoeba species

Enterovirus

Epstein-Barr virus

Filovirus panel

Giardia

Gibbon ape leukemia

Helicobacter

Hepatitis A virus

Hepatitis B virus

Hepatitis C virus

Herpes ateles

Herpes B virus

Herpes simplex type 1

Herpes simplex type 2

Herpes tamarinus

Herpesvirus ateles

Herpesvirus papio 1 & 2

Herpesvirus saimiri

Human adenoviruses

Human herpesviruses types 6, 7 & 8

Human immunodeficiency virus types 1 & 2

Human T cell lymphotropic virus

Human Varicella-Zoster

Influenza

Klebsiella

Lawsonia intracellularis

Leptospira

Lyme disease

Lymphocryptovirus

Malaria

Marburg virus

Measles

Monkeypox

Monkey parvoviruses

Mycobacteria

Mycoplasma

Neisseria gonorhoeae

Neisseria meningitidis

Papillomavirus

Plasmodium species

Reovirus screen

Rhesus rhadinovirus

Rotavirus

Salmonella

Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli

Simian agent 6 (SA6)

Simian agent 8 (SA8)

Simian foamy virus (SFV)

Simian hemorrhagic fever (SHFV)

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)

Simian parainfluenza virus

Simian retrovirus (SRV)

Simian sarcoma virus

Simian T-cell leukemia (STLV) types 1 & 2

Simian T-cell leukemia (STLV) type 3

Simian Varicella-Zoster

Squirrel monkey retrovirus

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes

SV40

SV5

Toxoplasma gondii

Treponema pallidum

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Trypanosoma cruzi

Tuberculosis

Ureaplasma

West Nile virus (WNV)

Yellow fever

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

* * *

Genetic tests for...

A/B/AB blood type in macaques

Fetal sexing

Mamu-6 in macaques

Mamu-7 in macaques

CYP2C76 c.449TG>A
in macaques

Mu opioid receptor
in macaques

smCCR5Δ24
in sooty mangabeys

...and more - contact Zoologix with your genetic testing requirements


Enterovirus PCR test for primates
primate assay data sheet

Enterovirus

Test code:
S0058 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of enterovirus by reverse transcription coupled real time polymerase chain reaction

 

The enteroviruses (EVs) are among the most common and most important viral pathogens of humans, and EVs also infect nonhuman primates. The EVs comprise 67 distinct serotypes within the family Picornaviridae. Most EV infections are asymptomatic. For symptomatic patients, the most common manifestation of EV infection may only be a nonspecific febrile illness with or without a rash. This so-called viral syndrome is one of the most common causes of fever among human children. Infected patients often develop upper respiratory symptoms very similar to illness caused by rhinoviruses in the winter months, making diagnosis very difficult.

Enteroviruses are the most common cause of meningitis in humans in the United States. It is also likely that EV infection in primates is a major cause of aseptic meningitis. Diagnosis of EV meningitis can be difficult, especially in young infant primates, because meningitis due to bacterial and other viral infection can present very similar symptoms. Even though EV meningitis is often benign in outcome and no specific therapy is indicated, EV-infected animals may be given unnecessary antibiotic and antiviral therapies due to misdiagnosis.

Laboratory diagnosis of enteroviruses is traditionally performed by viral culture and recognition of cytopathic effects, requiring a high degree of expertise and labor. Some EV serotypes, particularly within the coxsackievirus A group, do not grow at all in cell culture. Of greater concern is that 25 to 35% of specimens from human patients with characteristic EV infections are negative by cell culture (Chonmaitree et al., 1988) because of antibody neutralization in situ. Even though some EVs may grow in cell culture, they often grow very slowly, sometimes taking a week or more before any cytopathic effect can be observed.

Serological testing of EVs is not practical because there is no commonly shared antigen among the different EV serotypes (Herrmann et al., 1979). Detection of EVs using a molecular approach provides the best opportunity for rapid diagnosis of EVs in primates, because consensus sequences among different serotypes of EVs are available in the untranslated regions of EVs. Enterovirus detection by PCR over these consensus sequences thus provides the most rapid, sensitive and specific method for the diagnosis of this infection. The technique also helps eliminate false negative diagnoses.

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Help ensure that animal colonies are free of Enteroviruses
  • Early prevention of spread of the virus among a colony
  • Minimize personnel exposure to the virus
  • Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines that derive from primates

References:
Chonmaitree, T., Ford, C., Sanders, C. and Lucia, H.L. (1988) Comparison of cell culture for rapid isolation of enteroviruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:2576-2580.
Herrmann, J.E., Hendry, R.M. and Collins, F. (1979) Factors involved in enzyme-linked immunoassay of viruses and evaluation of the method for identification of enteroviruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 10: 210-217.

Specimen requirements: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or 0.2 ml CSF, urine, plasma, serum or nasal wash, or rectal swab, or throat swab, or 0.2 ml fresh or frozen tissue.

For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative reverse transcription coupled real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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