Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) by PCR
- Qualitative detection of SIVmac (macaque) by polymerase chain reaction.
detection of SIVagm strain Tyo-1 (african green monkey) by
polymerase chain reaction.
detection of SIVagm strain AGM-3 (african green monkey) by
polymerase chain reaction.
- Qualitative detection of SIVcpz (chimpanzee) by polymerase
- Qualitative detection of SIVbab (baboon) by polymerase chain
- Ultrasensitive qualitative screen for SIV/HIV-2/HIV-1 by
real time polymerase chain reaction - detects but does not
differentiate SIVsmm, SIVmac, SIVagm, SIVmnd, SIVsyk, SIVcpz,
SIVhu and HIV-2 (A and B subtypes), HIV-1 subtypes A, B, D, F,
H and N. However, assay does not detect HIV-1 subtype C.
- ELISA detection of antibodies to simian immunodeficiency virus
In the wild,
infections by primate lentiviruses occur only among African
monkeys and chimpanzees. Simian immunodeficiency viruses have
been isolated from several species of monkeys. Based on sequence
homology, the primate lentiviruses can be divided into several
groups, of which only three are important from the perspective
of primate models of AIDS: HIV-1/SIVcpz, HIV-2/SIVsmm/SIVmac,
and SIVagm. The other primate lentiviruses, e.g., SIVmnd, SIVsyk,
SIVwcm, SIVrcm, SIVdrl, etc., have not been used as yet to
develop models of AIDS. The primate lentiviruses have little or
no pathogenicity in their natural hosts and disease appears to
result only after transmission to another species.
many species of monkey are not endangered and breed well in
captivity. Large numbers of animals, especially macaques, are
readily available. Compared to chimpanzees, macaques are
inexpensive, making them suitable for vaccine studies that
require large numbers of animals. Unfortunately, with rare
exceptions, attempts to infect monkeys with HIV-1 have not been
successful. Some laboratories have reported the infection of
pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) with HIV-1, but virus
replication in vivo was at extremely low levels and did not
cause disease. Thus, the use of HIV-1/pig-tailed macaques as an
AIDS model is not feasible.
host of SIVsmm is the sooty mangabey monkey (Cercocebus atys).
SIVsmm is the progenitor of HIV-2 and SIVmac, which appear to
have arisen due to cross-species transmission to humans and
macaques, respectively. SIVmac infection in macaque monkeys is a
well-characterized model of AIDS. HIV-2 and SIVsmm infections of
macaques resemble SIVmac infections in most respects. Rhesus (Macaca
mulatta), cynomolgus (M. fascicularis), and pig-tailed macaques
have been used in the majority of studies, although other
macaque species are also susceptible to infection.
virus isolation can be used to diagnose SIV infection, a long
incubation period is required to obtain results. Furthermore,
viral culture is neither sensitive nor specific. Viral culture
also increases the potential risk of laboratory personnel
contacting this virus. SIV detection by PCR is the most rapid,
sensitive and specific method for the diagnosis of this
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Differentiate the disease causing SIV strain
Help ensure that animal colonies are free of SIV
Early prevention of spread of this virus among a colony
Minimize personnel exposure to this virus
Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines
that derive from primates
Specimen requirement: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top)
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See shipping
instructions for more information.
2 business days
S0010, S0011, S0012,
S0013, S0112 - Qualitative PCR
Qualitative real time PCR