Need serology?
Yes, we're still the PCR experts. But Zoologix also performs ELISA antibody tests for...

SRV
Herpes B
SIV
STLV
Measles
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C

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Zoologix performs primate infectious disease tests by PCR for...

Adenoviruses

Aspergillus

B virus

Babesia

Baboon endogenous virus

Baylisascaris procyonis

Borrelia burgdorferi

Campylobacter

Chagas' disease

Chlamydia pneumoniae

Chlamydophila trachomatis

Clostridium

Cronobacter sakazakii

Cryptosporidium

Cytomegalovirus, baboon

Cytomegalovirus, chimpanzee

Cytomegalovirus, human

Cytomegalovirus, macaque

Cytomegalovirus, simian

Dengue

Ebola

E. coli O157:H7

E. coli panel

Encephalitis, Japanese

Encephalitis, St. Louis

Encephalomyocarditis (EMCV)

Entamoeba species

Enterovirus

Epstein-Barr virus

Filovirus panel

Giardia

Gibbon ape leukemia

Helicobacter

Hepatitis A virus

Hepatitis B virus

Hepatitis C virus

Herpes ateles

Herpes B virus

Herpes simplex type 1

Herpes simplex type 2

Herpes tamarinus

Herpesvirus ateles

Herpesvirus papio 1 & 2

Herpesvirus saimiri

Human adenoviruses

Human herpesviruses types 6, 7 & 8

Human immunodeficiency virus types 1 & 2

Human T cell lymphotropic virus

Human Varicella-Zoster

Influenza

Klebsiella

Lawsonia intracellularis

Leptospira

Lyme disease

Lymphocryptovirus

Malaria

Marburg virus

Measles

Monkeypox

Monkey parvoviruses

Mycobacteria

Mycoplasma

Neisseria gonorhoeae

Neisseria meningitidis

Papillomavirus

Plasmodium species

Reovirus screen

Rhesus rhadinovirus

Rotavirus

Salmonella

Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli

Simian agent 6 (SA6)

Simian agent 8 (SA8)

Simian foamy virus (SFV)

Simian hemorrhagic fever (SHFV)

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)

Simian parainfluenza virus

Simian retrovirus (SRV)

Simian sarcoma virus

Simian T-cell leukemia (STLV) types 1 & 2

Simian T-cell leukemia (STLV) type 3

Simian Varicella-Zoster

Squirrel monkey retrovirus

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes

SV40

SV5

Toxoplasma gondii

Treponema pallidum

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Trypanosoma cruzi

Tuberculosis

Ureaplasma

West Nile virus (WNV)

Yellow fever

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

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Genetic tests for...

A/B/AB blood type in macaques

Fetal sexing

Mamu-6 in macaques

Mamu-7 in macaques

CYP2C76 c.449TG>A
in macaques

Mu opioid receptor
in macaques

smCCR5Δ24
in sooty mangabeys

...and more - contact Zoologix with your genetic testing requirements


Measles PCR test for primates
primate assay data sheet

Measles (Rubeola) by PCR

Test codes:

S0047 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of measles virus by reverse transcription coupled real time polymerase chain reaction

(A0006 - ELISA detection of antibodies to measles virus in macaques)

 

Measles (also known as rubeola) is an important viral disease that causes the death of about one million children each year. Measles virus belongs to the genus morbillivirus, which is a member of the paramyoxviridae family. Infection of non-human primates has been well documented in macaques (especially rhesus), baboons, African green, marmosets, tamarins, squirrel monkeys, chimps, and Presbytis cristatus. Measles viral infection seldom occurs in wild monkeys, but most wild-caught monkeys seroconvert within a few months of capture. Shedding of virus can be detected in most secretions and in urine.

Primates infected with this virus can be asymptomatic or rapidly fatal. Marmosets are said to be especially susceptible and symptoms such as maculopapular skin rash, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, ocular discharge and diarrhea, and rarely, abortion can develop in less than 10 days. (Koplik's spots may be present sometimes but abortion rarely occurs.) Immunosuppression during measles virus infection has also been documented and death resulting from secondary infections is common.

Many outbreaks in primate colonies have been described (Potkay et al., 1966; Willy et al., 1999; Choi et al., 1999). Although the primary infective source or the mode of infection could not be determined in a number of outbreaks, it was suspected that measles virus might have been transmitted to the monkeys from human visitors while the monkeys were on exhibit.

Although virus isolation can be used to diagnose measles virus infection, a long incubation period is required to obtain results. Furthermore, viral culture is neither sensitive nor specific, and it increases the potential risk of laboratory personnel contacting this virus. Serological detection of measles virus infection is not sensitive. In some cases, measles virus can be detected by PCR in oral fluids well before the onset of IgM antibody (Oliveira et al., 2003). The ability to detect measles virus by real time PCR in a wide variety of sample types such as urine, oral fluid and CSF not only simplifies sample acquisition procedures, but also offers multiple perspectives on the disease's progression.

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Help ensure that colonies are free of Measles virus
  • Early prevention of spread of this virus among a colony
  • Minimize personnel exposure to this virus
  • Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines that derive from primates

References:
Potkay, S., Ganaway, J.R., Rogers, N.G. and Kinard, R. (1966) An epizootic of measles in a colony of rhesus monkeys (Macacca mulatta). Am J Vet Res 27:331-334.
Willy, M.E., Woodward, R.A., Thornton, V.B., Wolff, A.V., Flynn, B.M., Heath, J.L., Villamarzo, Y.S., Smith, S., Bellini, W.J. and Rota, P,A, (1999) Management of a measles outbreak among Old World nonhuman primates. Lab Anim Sci. 49:42-48.
Choi, Y.K., Simon, M.A., Kim, D.Y., Yoon, B.I., Kwon, S.W., Lee, K.W., Seo, I.B. and Kim, D.Y.(1999) Fatal measles virus infection in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Vet Pathol. 36:594-600.
Oliveira, S.A., Siqueira, M.M., Camacho, L.A., Castro-Silva, R., Bruno, B.F. and Cohen, B.J.(2003) Use of RT-PCR on oral fluid samples to assist the identification of measles cases during an outbreak. Epidemiol Infect. 130:101-106.

Specimen requirement: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or throat swab, or lesion swab, or lesion scab, or 0.2 ml urine, serum, plasma or CSF.

For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative reverse transcription coupled real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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