primate assay data sheet
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2
Ultrasensitive detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
(HIV-1) proviral DNA by real time PCR
Ultrasensitive detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 2
(HIV-2) proviral DNA by real time PCR
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a
lentivirus that is a member of the family Retroviridae.
Infection with this virus causes acquired immunodeficiency
syndrome (AIDS) when it infects vital cells in the human immune
system, such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+ T cells),
macrophages, and dendritic cells, leading to the death of these
cells. When CD4+ T cell level declines below a critical level,
cell-mediated immunity is lost, and the body becomes
progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections.
There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Both types are transmitted by sexual contact, through blood, and
from mother to child. The clinical presentations of the two
types are almost indistinguishable. However, it appears that
HIV-2 is less easily transmitted, and the period between initial
infection and illness is longer in the case of HIV-2. HIV-1 is the predominant type of HIV in the world whereas
HIV-2 is restricted mostly to west Africa and is rarely found
Because retroviruses are RNA viruses and can
easily mutate, there are many reported strains of HIV. Strains
of HIV-1 can be classified into three groups: the "major" group
M, the "outlier" group O and the "new" group N. These three
groups may represent three separate introductions of simian
immunodeficiency virus into humans.
Group O appears to be restricted to
west-central Africa; group N was discovered in 1998 in Cameroon
and is extremely rare. More than 90% of HIV-1 infections belong
to HIV-1 group M. Within group M there are at least nine
genetically distinct subtypes (or clades). These are subtypes A,
B, C, D, F, G, H, J and K.
Molecular detection of HIV proviral DNA by
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is highly sensitivity and
specific, and is often used as an end-point indicator of
• Help confirm the disease causing agent in
• Early prevention of spread of
these viruses among a group of animals
• Minimize human exposure
to these viruses
• Safety monitoring of biological products
and vaccines that derive from susceptible animals
Specimen requirements: 0.2 ml whole blood
in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or 0.2 ml
cerebrospinal fluid, or 0.2 ml fresh or frozen tissue.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or
during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped
and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping
requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped
so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for
Turnaround time: 2 business days
Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR
Normal range: Nondetected