primate assay data sheet
X0020 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection but not differentiation of most
reported species of
Babesia, such as Entopolypoides
(Babesia) macaci and B. microti, by real time polymerase chain reaction
an illness caused by the parasite
Babesia which is an
intra-erythrocytic protozoan. This parasite can infect a wide
range of mammals including primates, dogs, cats and various
livestock. The parasite can also be transmitted to humans by
animals and humans may develop fever, chills, sweating, myalgias
(muscle aches), fatigue, hepatosplenomegaly (enlargement of the
liver and spleen) and hemolytic anemia.
than 100 species of
Babesia have been reported but only a few have been
identified as causing human infection.
Babesia microti and Babesia
divergens have been identified in most human cases, but
variants (considered different species) have also been
identified recently. There is only scanty knowledge about the
occurrence of Babesia species in malarial areas where
Babesia can easily be
Plasmodium, the agent of malaria.
parasites of the genus Entopolypoides macaci have
been reported to infect nonhuman primates. Analyses
of the small-subunit rRNA (SSUrRNA) sequences of
E. macaci and
serological and epidemiological data suggest that the
genus Entopolypoides is synonymous with that of
In various primate centers, natural infections with this
parasite have been reported in baboons (Papio cynocephalus),
cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis),
and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).
Sub-clinical infections with this parasite may exist in
various primate centers and breeding farms; the use of these
infected animals could pose a significant problem to research
studies and occupational hazard to workers who handle these
this parasite are common in livestock. For example, bovine
babesiosis is an important tick-borne disease caused by
B. bigemina and
B. divergens. Currently, control methods such as chemotherapy,
premunition and vaccination with attenuated parasites are used
to avoid economic losses caused by
examination is considered to be the “gold standard” for
diagnosis of babesiosis.
However, parasite visualization in
blood smears may be difficult in cases
where small numbers of parasites are present in the peripheral
blood (Böse et al., 1995), and Babesia
can be difficult to differentiate visually from Plasmodium
species. Serological detection is of limited value because of the
multiple species of
animals have been previously exposed to this parasite and have
developed antibody responses, so that a positive serological
result may not reflect a recent infection.
Currently, molecular detection is considered to be the
most sensitive and specific method to identify animals infected
with this parasite (Costa-Júnior et al., 2006).
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Help ensure that animal populations are free of
Early prevention of spread of these parasites among a
group of animals
Minimize human exposure to these parasites
Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines
that derive from susceptible animals
Böse, R., Jorgensen, W.K.,
Dalgliesh, R.J., Friedhoff, K.T. and De Vos, A.J. (1995)
Current state and future trends in the diagnosis of babesiosis,
Vet. Parasitol. 57 61–74.
L.M., Rabelo, E.M.L., Filho, O.A.M. and Ribeiro, M.F.B.(2006)
Comparison of different direct diagnostic methods to identify
Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in animals vaccinated with
live attenuated parasites. Vet. Parasitol. 139:231-
0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or 0.2
ml synovial fluid, or tick.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or
during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped
and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping
requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped
so as to remain frozen in transit. See
for more information.
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real time PCR