& livestock assay data sheet
- Ultrasensitive detection of bovine enterovirus by reverse transcription
coupled real time PCR
Enteroviruses belong to family Picornaviridae. They are the most common
viruses, infecting a wide range of mammals. At least eighty-nine
serotypes have been identified: 62 associated with human
infections and 27 associated with animal infections. The latter
group includes 22 simian enteroviruses, 3 porcine enteroviruses,
and 2 bovine enteroviruses (BEV).
Infection of cattle with BEV can result in reproductive, gastrointestinal
and respiratory disease. The virus multiplies primarily in the
gastrointestinal tract but also in the muscles and neurological
tissue. There are at least 10 sero-subtypes reported and these
are grouped into 2 serogroups.
The host spectrum is quite different between serogroups 1 and 2.
Serological responses to group 1 can be detected in many species
like humans, horses, dogs, cattle, pigs, rabbits, fowl, deer,
impala, buffalo, llamas, sheep and goats, whereas group 2
serological response is restricted to domestic cattle.
Enterovirus infections in cattle are typically asymptomatic, and many
apparently healthy animals can be carriers. In some severe
cases, diarrhea and abortions may be seen. Infected animals can
shed large amount of virus in the feces and the virus is
transmitted via the fecal-oral route. The virus is highly
resistant to environmental challenges.
Diagnosis of enteroviral infection is difficult using serological
methods, because a significant number of animals have had prior
exposure to the virus. However, molecular detection by PCR is a
rapid, specific and sensitive method to confirm the diagnosis
(Jiménez-Clavero et al., 2005).
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Help identify BEV virus carriers
Help ensure that herds and facilities are free of BEV
Early prevention of spread of the virus among animals
Minimize human exposure to the virus
Safety monitoring of biological products that derive
Jiménez-Clavero, M.A., Escribano-Romero, E., Mansilla, C., Gómez, N.,
Córdoba, L., Roblas, N., Ponz, F., Ley, V. and Sáiz, J.C. (2005)
Survey of bovine enterovirus in biological and environmental
samples by a highly sensitive real-time reverse
transcription-PCR. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:3536-3543.
whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or 0.2 ml feces, or rectal swab, or 0.2 ml fresh
or frozen tissue.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See
for more information.
2 business days
Qualitative reverse transcription coupled real time PCR