We've added new PCR tests for swine and bovine diseases -- see our menu for a complete listing.

Parrots moving in or moving out? Try our psittacine PCR screening panel.

Respiratory problems got you breathless? Try our poultry respiratory PCR panel.

Our DRY CARDS let you mail blood samples to Zoologix easily and cheaply from anywhere because DRY CARD samples are small, light and stable at room temperature for several weeks.

Zoologix performs avian and livestock PCR tests for...

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

African swine fever

Akabane virus

Alcelaphine herpesvirus

AMPKγ3R200Q mutation in pigs

Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Aspergillus fumigatus

Aspergillus species


Avian adenovirus

Avian herpes

Avian influenza

Avian polyomavirus

Avian reovirus

Baylisascaris procyonis

Blood typing for swine

Bluetongue virus

Bordetella avium

Borna virus

Bovine adenovirus

Bovine endogenous retrovirus

Bovine enterovirus

Bovine ephemeral fever virus

Bovine herpesvirus 1

Bovine herpesvirus 2

Bovine herpesvirus 4

Bovine leukemia virus

Bovine papillomavirus

Bovine papular stomatitis virus

Bovine parvovirus

Bovine polyomavirus

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus

Bovine rhinoviruses

Bovine viral diarrhea

Brachyspira pilosicoli


Cache Valley virus




Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus

Chlamydophila psittaci

Classical swine fever






Coxiella burnetii



E. coli O157:h7



Enteric E. coli panel

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

Foot and mouth disease


Fusobacterium necrophorum

Hepatitis E

Herpes, avian


Infectious bronchitis

Infectious bursal disease

Infectious coryza

Infectious laryngotracheitis


Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV)

Japanese encephalitis

Jena virus

Johne's disease


Lumpy skin disease virus


Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)

Malignant hyperthermia in pigs


Mycobacterium avium and other Mycobacteria

Mycoplasma species

Mycoplasma suis

Newcastle disease virus

Nipah virus

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale

Ovine herpesvirus 2

Pacheco's disease (psittacid herpesviruses)

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV)

Pigeon circovirus

Plasmodium species

Porcine adenovirus

Porcine circovirus 1

Porcine circovirus 2

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV)

Porcine enterovirus

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV)

Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)

Poultry respiratory panel



Psittacine beak and feather disease

Psittacine herpes

Q fever



Rift Valley fever virus

Rinderpest virus

RyR1 R615C mutation in pigs


Staphylococcus xylosus

St. Louis encephalitis


Swine malignant hyperthermia


Swine vesicular disease

Teschovirus (Teschen-Talfan disease)

Tickborne encephalitis virus



Valley fever

Vesicular exanthema of swine

Vesicular stomatitis

Wesselsbron virus

West Nile virus

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

...and more -- see the avian & livestock test menu for a complete listing of avian and livestock assays.

Atoxoplasma PCR test for birds

avian & livestock assay data sheet


Test code:
X0021 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Atoxoplasma species by real time PCR


Atoxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease primarily of passerine birds, especially canaries, finches, sparrows, grosbeaks, starlings and mynahs. The disease is caused by infection with various species of the coccidian protozoan genus Atoxoplasma. The parasite is host-specific and is transmitted via the fecal-oral route.

Infection with this parasite can cause rapid and fatal disease in fledgling birds. Affected young birds may develop diarrhea, anorexia, depression, ruffled feathers, ataxia and hepatic enlargement that may be grossly visible through the living bird’s skin as "black spot." Mortality rates for atoxoplasmosis can reach 80% in young passerines. Infected adult birds are usually asymptomatic but continue to shed oocysts. The infection can last for up to eight months. Oocysts are very stable in the environment and are not inactivated by most disinfectants. Thus, routine environmental monitoring may be required to completely remove these parasites from a facility. In addition, new birds which are introduced into a flock or facility should be repeatedly screened to ensure no parasites are being introduced.

Diagnosis of atoxoplasmosis has traditionally been through postmortem examination and histopathology of fledglings that die acutely, or by fecal floatation on persistently infected adult birds. Identification of Atoxoplasma oocysts is extremely difficult because the oocysts are very similar to those of Isospora species and the shedding of the oocysts by infected birds is often sporadic. Blood smear testing can be used, but sensitivity is low. Molecular detection by PCR has been found to be both sensitive and specific for detection and identification of the parasite (Adkesson et al., 2005).


  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of Atoxoplasma infection
  • Help ensure that flocks are free of Atoxoplasma
  • Early prevention of spread of Atoxoplasma among birds, and between birds and other animals
  • Minimize human exposure to Atoxoplasma

Adkesson, M.J., Zdziarski, J.M. and Little, S.E. (2005) Atoxoplasmosis in tanagers. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 36:265-272

Specimen requirement: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or 0.2 ml feces, or cloacal swab, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed tissue.

Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

2003-2018 Zoologix, Inc. • Email Zoologix • Phone (818) 717-8880