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Zoologix performs avian and livestock PCR tests for...

African swine fever

Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Aspergillus

Atoxoplasma

Avian adenovirus

Avian influenza

Avian polyomavirus

Avian reovirus

Baylisascaris procyonis

Blood typing for swine

Bluetongue virus

Bordetella avium

Bovine adenovirus

Bovine parvovirus

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus

Bovine rhinoviruses

Bovine viral diarrhea

Brucella

Campylobacter      

Candida

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus

Chlamydophila psittaci

Classical swine fever

Clostridium

Coronaviruses

Coxiella burnetii

Cryptococcus

Cryptosporidium

E. coli O157:h7

Edwardsiella

Encephalomyocarditis

Enteric E. coli panel

Foot and mouth disease

Fowlpox

Hepatitis E

Histoplasma

Infectious bronchitis

Infectious bursal disease

Infectious coryza

Infectious laryngotracheitis

Japanese encephalitis

Johne's disease

Malaria

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)

Mycobacterium avium and other Mycobacteria

Mycoplasma

Newcastle disease virus

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale

Ovine herpesvirus 2

Pacheco's disease (psittacid herpesviruses)

Pigeon circovirus

Plasmodium species

Porcine adenovirus

Porcine circovirus 2

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV)

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)

Poultry respiratory panel

Pseudorabies

Psittacine beak and feather disease

Psittacine herpes

Q fever

Reovirus

Salmonella

St. Louis encephalitis

Swine vesicular disease

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Vaccinia

Vesicular stomatitis

West Nile virus

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

...and more -- see the avian & livestock test menu for a complete listing of avian assays.

Avian polyomavirus PCR test
avian & livestock assay data sheet

Avian polyomavirus (APV)

Test code:
S0089 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of avian polyomavirus by real time polymerase chain reaction

S0089 is included in the psittacine PCR screening panel

 

Avian polyomavirus causes budgerigar fledgling disease. The virus has a double-stranded DNA genome. It has a worldwide distribution and is one of the most significant pathogens of fledglings of caged birds such as macaws, conures, eclectus parrots, ring-necked parrots, lovebirds, and budgerigars. Polyomavirus is highly infectious, although many infections may be asymptomatic. Disease in adult birds is rare and may require a simultaneous infection with Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease Virus.

Birds infected with APV can develop abdominal distention and a feather abnormality known as “French molt”. The disease causes a lack of down feathers on the back and abdomen, filoplumes on the head and neck, and subcutaneous hemorrhage, sometimes culminating in mortality. APV and PBFD (psittacine beak and feather disease) virus cause similar feather abnormalities and it is difficult to differentiate the viral etiology based on clinical presentations. However, it is important to differentiate them since treatments and countermeasures differ for the two diseases.

Viremia in budgerigars may develop as soon as 9 days after infection but may take as long as 2 weeks in other species. Following the start of viremia, virus can be detected in cloacal swabs. The sample of choice is blood as it has been shown in cockatoos and conures that viral DNA can be consistently detected in the blood of viremic birds but only intermittently in cloacal swabs. Infected nestling parrots can shed virus for up to 16 weeks, whereas adult birds may shed virus for only 6 weeks or less.

Many methods, such as immunoflourescence and electron microscopy, have been used to detect APV and differentiate APV infection from PBFD. Among these methods, PCR detection remains the most sensitive, specific and rapid (Phalen et al., 1991). Furthermore, a wide variety of samples can be tested using PCR, such as blood, cloacal swabs, fecal dust and fresh or paraffin-embedded tissue.

Some experts recommend screening individual birds without a history by PCR analysis of blood. Blood from adult birds testing positive for the virus should be retested in 4 to 6 weeks. Juvenile birds testing positive should be retested in 12 to 16 weeks. If the infected bird is blood-negative in the second test, an additional test should be done on a cloacal swab to ensure that it is no longer shedding virus in the droppings.

Preliminary trials indicate that polyomavirus DNA is not detectable in the blood of uninfected birds following vaccination for APV. Veterinarians must therefore conclude that if a bird’s blood tests positive by PCR, it is infected with polyomavirus regardless of whether it was recently vaccinated, and that the bird is most likely shedding the virus.

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Environmental monitoring
  • Help ensure that bird populations are free of APV
  • Early prevention of spread of the virus among bird populations
  • Minimize human exposure to the virus
  • Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines that derive from birds

References:
Phalen, D.N., Wilson, V.G. and Graham, D.L. (1991) Polymerase chain reaction assay for avian polyomavirus. J Clin Microbiol.29:1030-1037.

Specimen requirements: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or 0.2 ml feces, or cloacal swab, or swab of the outer surface of liver, spleen or kidney, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed tissue.

For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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