We've added new PCR tests for swine and bovine diseases -- see our menu for a complete listing.

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Zoologix performs avian and livestock PCR tests for...

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

African swine fever

Akabane virus

Alcelaphine herpesvirus

AMPKγ3R200Q mutation in pigs

Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Aspergillus fumigatus

Aspergillus species

Atoxoplasma

Aujeszky's disease

Avian adenovirus

Avian herpes

Avian influenza

Avian polyomavirus

Avian reovirus

Baylisascaris procyonis

Blood typing for swine

Bluetongue virus

Bordetella avium

Borna virus

Bovine adenovirus

Bovine endogenous retrovirus

Bovine enterovirus

Bovine ephemeral fever virus

Bovine herpesvirus 1

Bovine herpesvirus 2

Bovine herpesvirus 4

Bovine leukemia virus

Bovine papillomavirus

Bovine papular stomatitis virus

Bovine parvovirus

Bovine polyomavirus

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus

Bovine rhinoviruses

Bovine viral diarrhea

Brachyspira pilosicoli

Brucella

Cache Valley virus

Camelpox

Campylobacter      

Candida

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus

Chlamydophila psittaci

Classical swine fever

Clostridium

Coccidia

Coccidiodes

Coronaviruses

Cowpox

Coxiella burnetii

Cryptococcus

Cryptosporidium

E. coli O157:h7

Edwardsiella

Encephalomyocarditis

Enteric E. coli panel

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

Foot and mouth disease

Fowlpox

Fusobacterium necrophorum

Hepatitis E

Herpes, avian

Histoplasma

Infectious bronchitis

Infectious bursal disease

Infectious coryza

Infectious laryngotracheitis

Influenza

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV)

Japanese encephalitis

Jena virus

Johne's disease

Lawsonia intracellularis

Leptospira

Lumpy skin disease virus

Malaria

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)

Malignant hyperthermia in pigs

Mites

Mycobacterium avium and other Mycobacteria

Mycoplasma species

Mycoplasma suis

Newcastle disease virus

Nipah virus

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale

Ovine herpesvirus 2

Pacheco's disease (psittacid herpesviruses)

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV)

Pigeon circovirus

Plasmodium species

Porcine adenovirus

Porcine circovirus 1

Porcine circovirus 2

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV)

Porcine enterovirus

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis

Porcine hemorrhagic enteropathy

Porcine intestinal adenomatosis

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV)

Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)

Poultry respiratory panel

Pseudocowpox

Pseudorabies

Psittacine beak and feather disease

Psittacine herpes

Q fever

Rabies

Reovirus

Rift Valley fever virus

Rinderpest virus

RyR1 R615C mutation in pigs

Salmonella

Staphylococcus xylosus

St. Louis encephalitis

Streptococcus

Swine malignant hyperthermia

Swinepox

Swine vesicular disease

Taenia solium

Teschovirus (Teschen-Talfan disease)

Tickborne encephalitis virus

Trichinella spiralis

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Vaccinia

Valley fever

Vesicular exanthema of swine

Vesicular stomatitis

Wesselsbron virus

West Nile virus

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

...and more -- see the avian & livestock test menu for a complete listing of avian and livestock assays.

African swine fever PCR test

Camelpox (CMLV)

Test code:
S0229 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of camelpox virus by real time PCR

 

The camelpox virus (CMLV) belongs to the family poxviridae, subfamily chordopoxvirinae, genus Orthopoxvirus. This DNA virus infects both Old World camelids (eg dromedaries and bactrian camels) and New World camelids (eg llamas, alpacas, vicunyas).  The virus was first reported in Russia and later in India. The disease occurs throughout camel breeding areas of Northern Africa, the Middle East, and Asia, but has not been reported in wild camels in Australia.

Infected animals can develop fever, local or generalized pox lesions on the skin and in the mucous membranes of the mouth and respiratory tract. Lesions follow the usual pattern of pox lesions, tending to be most concentrated around the face, including eyelids, nostrils, and margins of the pinnae. In severe cases, the whole head may be swollen. Intense pruritus may be seen in acute cases. Later, skin lesions may extend to the neck, limbs, genitalia, mammary glands, and perineum. However, not all infected animals develop symptoms; the clinical manifestation can range from asymptomatic infection to severe systemic infection and death. Young animals and pregnant females are more susceptible and usually develop more severe symptoms. Camelpox is characterized by high morbidity and a relatively high mortality rate in young animals.

The virus is usually transmitted either by direct contact between infected and susceptible animals or by exposure to a contaminated environment. The virus has the ability to remain virulent for up to 4 months without a host. The virus may also be transmitted by insects, in particular camel ticks (Hyalomma dromedarii).

Camelpox virus is typically host specific and normally does not infect non-camelid species. However, zoonotic camelpox viral infection in humans associated with outbreaks in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) was described in northeastern India in 2009.

Camelpox infection can sometimes be diagnosed based on clinical signs in affected animals. However, the symptoms can be confused with diseases caused by contagious ecthyma (orf-parapox virus), papillomatosis or insect bites. Laboratory testing is needed to definitively diagnose the disease-causing agent. Conventional serological tests such as haemagglutination, haemagglutination inhibition, neutralization, indirect ELISA, complement fixation, and fluorescent antibody assays have been described to detect CMLV antibodies, but these tests are time consuming, labor intensive, and less sensitive, so they are generally not suitable for primary diagnosis. Molecular detection by PCR is sensitive, specific and rapid, and should be considered in diagnosis of the disease (Balamurugan et al., 2009).

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of camelpox
  • Help ensure that camel herds and camelid populations are free of camelpox
  • Early prevention of spread of this virus among a herd or population, or between species
  • Environmental monitoring for this virus
  • Minimize human exposure to this virus
  • Safety monitoring of products that derive from camels or camelids

References:
Balamurugan, V., Bhanuprakash, V., Hosamani, M., Kallesh, D.J., Bina Chauhan, Venkatesan, G., Singh, R.K. (2009) A polymerase chain reaction strategy for the diagnosis of camelpox. J. Vet. Diag. Invest. 21:231–237..

Specimen requirement: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or 0.2 ml serum, or 0.2 ml urine, or lesion swab, or pus swab, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed tissue.

Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative real time polymerase chain reaction

Normal range: Nondetected

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