& livestock assay data sheet
Pseudocowpox (aka paravaccinia virus)
- Ultrasensitive detection of pseudocowpox virus by real time PCR
Pseudocowpox virus is a parapoxvirus also known as "paravaccinia." It
belongs to the family Poxviridae. The virus is widespread
worldwide and is related to the viruses that cause contagious
ecthyma and bovine papular stomatitis. The parapoxviruses differ
morphologically from vaccinia virus and other poxviruses. They
have a limited host range and cannot be propagated in fertile
eggs; they will grow in some cell cultures, although relatively
Pseudocowpox virus causes a viral skin disease that results in mild sores
on the teats and udders of cattle. At the beginning stage of
infection, cows will develop small red papules on the teats or
udder. These may be followed rapidly by scabbing or by small
vesicles. Pustules may develop before scabs form. Scabs may be
abundant but can be removed without causing pain. Granulation
occurs beneath the scabs, resulting in a raised lesion that
heals from the center and leaves a characteristic horseshoe or
circular ring of small scabs. Some lesions persist for several
months, giving the affected teats a rough feel and appearance,
and more scabs may form. This virus can also infect humans and
the condition is commonly referred to as “milker’s nodule."
Because this virus is very similar to other parapoxviruses in term of
antigenicity and growth characteristics, identification is
usually confirmed by molecular detection via PCR, which is
rapid, sensitive and specific (Zhao et al., 2013).
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Help identify pseudocowpox virus carriers
Help ensure that herds and populations are free of
Early prevention of spread of the virus among animals
Minimize human exposure to the virus
Safety monitoring of biological products that derive
Zhao, H., Wilkins, K., Damon, I.K. and Li, Y. (2013) Specific qPCR assays
for the detection of orf virus, pseudocowpox virus and bovine
papular stomatitis virus. J. Virol. Methods. 194:229-234.
whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or
lesion swab, or scab.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See
for more information.
2 business days
Qualitative real time PCR