avian & livestock assay data sheet
- Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of bovine papillomavirus by
real time polymerase chain reaction
(BPV) is a group of DNA viruses of the family
Papillomaviridae. They are small non-enveloped viruses with an
icosahedral capsid approximately 50–60 nm in diameter. The
capsid is formed of the L1 and L2 structural proteins. The viral
genome consists of a circular DNA of approximately 7 to 8 kb.
There are six types of BPV which are divided into three broad
BPV is highly
prevalent; for example, around 50% of cattle in the UK are
estimated to bear lesions. Infection causes warts (papillomas
and fibropapillomas) of the skin and alimentary tract. The
papillomas are benign tumors and generally regress, but
occasionally persist and provide the focus for malignant
transformation to squamous cell carcinoma, particularly in the
presence of environmental cofactors. Cutaneous warts are most
common in animals under 2 years of age, and usually disappear as
the animal's immune response becomes more mature. Duration of
infection is variable, from one month to over a year, and
recurrence is possible
and BPV-2 can also induce sarcomas and fibrosarcomas in other
mammals, including equids (equine sarcoid) and, experimentally
at least, in rabbits, hamsters and mice
The warts usually
contain a large number of infectious viruses. Transmission
between co-housed animals is common through casual contact with
things like fence posts or halters. Warts on the teats of
lactating cows cause transmission to nursing calves.
Contaminated tattooing or tagging equipment is another common
source of infection.
Diagnosis of the infection may be performed by clinical
examination and immunohistochemical staining of the lesions.
Definitive diagnosis or confirmation can be accomplished through
molecular detection by polymerase chain reaction, which is
highly specific and sensitive (Martens et al., 2001).
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Identify bovine papillomavirus carriers
Help ensure that animal groups and populations are free of
Early prevention of spread of the virus among animals
Minimize human exposure to the virus
Safety monitoring of biological products that derive from
Martens, A., De Moor,
A. and Ducatelle, R. (2001) PCR detection of bovine papilloma
virus DNA in superficial swabs and scrapings from equine
sarcoids. Vet. J. 161:280-286.
Specimen requirements: 0.2 ml whole blood
in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or lesion swab,
or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed tissue.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or
during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped
and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping
requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped
so as to remain frozen in transit. See
shipping instructions for
Turnaround time: 2 business days
Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR
Normal range: Nondetected
Bovine papillomavirus PCR test