& livestock assay data sheet
Bovine endogenous retrovirus
detection of bovine endogenous viral particles by real time PCR.
This test is designed to detect replication-competent bovine
endogenous retrovirus in acellular sample types.
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are the proviral phase of exogenous
retroviruses that integrate into a host cell genome for
generations. ERVs have been detected in all mammals and many
other vertebrates. Their typical structure is composed of a
central part with the three major genes (gag, pol, and env)
flanked by two long terminal repeats (LTRs) that were identical
when the retrovirus entered the host germ line. Although the
biological significance of ERVs in a host cell genome is not
clear, it is widely believed that they contribute to mutation of
a host cell genome which in turn affects development of the
organism and disease formation.
The complete sequencing of the cattle genome has allowed detailed analysis
of ERV elements, which led to the discovery of a number of
bovine ERVs (BERVs or BoERVs). These BERVs are classified into
four families, named β3, γ4, γ7, and γ9, on the basis of their
similarity to ovine ERVs (OERVs).
Reactivation of these endogenous viruses is a major concern in vaccine
and biotherapeutic agent production (Dewannieux et al., 2010).
While viral culture is used to detect reactivation of endogenous
viruses, the sensitivity of that method is very low. PCR testing
can enhance sensitivity of detection of these reactivated
endogenous viruses (Fukumoto et al., 2016)
Safety monitoring of biological products that derive
Dewannieux, M., Ribet, D. and Heidmann, T. (2010) Risks linked to
endogenous retroviruses for vaccine production: a general
overview. Biologicals 38:366-70.
Fukumoto, H., Hishima, T., Hasegawa, H., Saeki, H., Kuroda, M. and
Katano, H. (2016) Evaluation of Vero-cell-derived simian
endogenous retrovirus infection in humans by detection of viral
genome in clinicopathological samples and commercialized
vaccines and by serology of Japanese general population. Vaccine
cell culture supernatant or other acellular sample.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See
for more information.
2 business days
Qualitative reverse transcription coupled real time PCR