avian & livestock assay data sheet
disease virus (LSDV)
- Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of lumpy skin disease
virus (LSDV) by
real time polymerase chain reaction
Lumpy skin disease
virus (LSDV) belongs to the genus Capripoxvirus of the
family Poxviridae. The virus is closely related antigenically to
sheep and goat poxviruses. Although these three viruses are
distinct, they cannot be differentiated with routine serological
Infection of cattle with LSDV
can result in significant morbidity. Although the mortality rate
is generally low, economic losses are significant due to
decreased milk production, abortion, infertility, loss of
condition and damaged hides. Lumpy skin disease is endemic in
Africa, but it has the potential to become established in other
parts of the world.
The virus primarily infects cattle.
Bos taurus breeds, particularly Jersey, Guernsey and
Ayrshire, are more susceptible to clinical disease than zebu
cattle (Bos indicus). A few cases have been reported in
Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Wild animals are
not a major target for this virus.
LSDV is primarily
transmitted by insects; it has been found in mosquitoes in the
genera Aedes and Culex during some outbreaks.
Transmission through direct contact is not common, but the virus
has been found in cutaneous lesions, saliva, respiratory
secretions, milk and semen. Viral DNA has been detected in the
semen of some bulls for at least 5 months after infection.
Experimental inoculation has been demonstrated with material
from cutaneous nodules or blood, or by ingestion of feed and
water contaminated with saliva. LSDV is very resistant to
inactivation, surviving in desiccated crusts for up to 35 days,
and can remain viable for long periods in the environment.
Diagnosis of LSDV infection has been accomplished by culture
detection of the virus. Serological methods, such as ELISA or
IFA, have been used to diagnose infections, but because of
cross-reactivity with other poxviruses, interpretation of
serological results may not be definitive. Molecular detection
of LSDV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a highly specific,
sensitive and rapid alternative to the other methods (Sharawi
and Abd El-Rahim, 2011).
Sharawi S.S. and Abd El-Rahim, I.H. (2011) The utility of
polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of
disease in cattle and water buffaloes in Egypt. Rev. Sci. Tech.
0.2 ml whole blood in
EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or 0.2 ml semen, or
0.2 ml saliva, or 0.2 ml lesion or crust material, or 0.2 ml
fresh, frozen or fixed tissue.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or
during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped
and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping
requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped
so as to remain frozen in transit. See
shipping instructions for
Turnaround time: 2 business days
Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR
Normal range: Nondetected
Lumpy skin disease virus PCR test