avian & livestock assay data sheet
B0101 - Ultrasensitive detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum
(formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophilum) by real time PCR
phagocytophilum is a gram-negative bacterium formerly known as
Ehrlichia phagocytophilum. It causes anaplasmosis in sheep and
cattle, also known as tick-borne fever and pasture fever
respectively. The bacteria tend to attack neutrophils and when
they infect humans, they can cause human granulocytic
are transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick. The
black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) is the vector of
phagocytophilum in the northeastern and upper midwestern United
States. The western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus) is the
primary vector in Northern California.
When humans are
infected, it may take one to two weeks before symptoms develop.
Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle pain, skin rash (in
rare occasions), leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and mild injury to
When animals are infected with these bacteria,
they may develop lethargy, ataxia, inappetence, and weak or
painful limbs, but the most severe changes are anemia and
leukopenia. The infection is often confused with Lyme disease,
another tick-borne illness.
Serological detection of these bacteria can take
some time to reach a definitive diagnosis. Molecular detection
by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a highly specific and
sensitive way to detect the presence of these bacteria, and
should be considered as an alternative to the serological method
(Kirtz et al., 2005).
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical
diagnosis of Anaplasma
Help ensure that herds are free of
Early prevention of spread of
Minimize human exposure to
Safety monitoring of biological products that derive from
Kirtz, G., Meli, M., Leidinger, E., Ludwig, P., Thum, D.,
Czettel, B., Kölbl, S. and Lutz, H. (2005) Anaplasma
phagocytophilum infection in a dog: identifying the causative
agent using PCR. J. Small Anim. Pract. 46:300-303.
0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) tube, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen
or fixed tissue.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See shipping
instructions for more information.
2 business days
real time PCR