We've added new PCR tests for swine and bovine diseases -- see our menu for a complete listing.

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Zoologix performs avian and livestock PCR tests for...

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

African swine fever

Akabane virus

Alcelaphine herpesvirus

AMPKγ3R200Q mutation in pigs

Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Aspergillus fumigatus

Aspergillus species


Aujeszky's disease

Avian adenovirus

Avian herpes

Avian influenza

Avian polyomavirus

Avian reovirus

Avibacterium paragallinarum

Baylisascaris procyonis

Blood typing for swine

Bluetongue virus

Bordetella avium

Borna virus

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Bovine endogenous retrovirus

Bovine enterovirus

Bovine ephemeral fever virus

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Bovine herpesvirus 2

Bovine herpesvirus 4

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Bovine papular stomatitis virus

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Bovine respiratory syncytial virus

Bovine rhinoviruses

Bovine viral diarrhea type 1

Brachyspira pilosicoli


Cache Valley virus




Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus

Chlamydia/Chlamydophila genus

Chlamydophila psittaci

Classical swine fever






Coxiella burnetii



Ebola Reston

E. coli O157:h7



Enteric E. coli panel

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

Foot and mouth disease

Fowl adenovirus


Fusobacterium necrophorum

Hepatitis E

Herpes, avian


Infectious bronchitis

Infectious bursal disease

Infectious coryza

Infectious laryngotracheitis

Influenza type A

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV)

Japanese encephalitis

Jena virus

Johne's disease

Lawsonia intracellularis


Lumpy skin disease virus


Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)


Mycobacterium avium and other Mycobacteria

Mycoplasma species

Mycoplasma suis

Newcastle disease virus

Nipah virus

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale

Ovine herpesvirus 2

Pacheco's disease (psittacid herpesviruses)

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV)

Pigeon circovirus

Plasmodium species

Porcine adenovirus

Porcine circovirus 1

Porcine circovirus 2

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV)

Porcine enterovirus

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis

Porcine hemorrhagic enteropathy

Porcine intestinal adenomatosis

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV)

Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)

Poultry respiratory panel



Psittacine beak and feather disease

Psittacine herpes

Q fever



Rift Valley fever virus

Rinderpest virus

RyR1 R615C mutation in pigs


Staphylococcus xylosus

St. Louis encephalitis



Swine vesicular disease

Taenia solium

Teschovirus (Teschen-Talfan disease)

Tickborne encephalitis virus

Trichinella spiralis



Valley fever

Vesicular exanthema of swine

Vesicular stomatitis

Wesselsbron virus

West Nile virus

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

...and more -- see the avian & livestock test menu for a complete listing of avian and livestock assays.

Fusobacterium necrophorum PCR test

avian & livestock assay data sheet

Fusobacterium necrophorum

Test code:
B0093 - Ultrasensitive detection of Fusobacterium necrophorum by real time PCR


Fusobacterium organisms are anaerobic, non-motile, gram-negative bacilli. The genus includes F. necrophorum, F. nucleatum, F. mortiferu, F. varium, F. gonidaformans, F. alocis, F. pseudonecrophorum, F. salci, and F. ulcerans. Members of this genus usually appear as slender or fusiform rods with tapered ends under microscope. However, some species may be pleomorphic in shape.

Fusobacteria are normal inhabitants of mucosal surfaces, including the mouth, upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and urogenital tract. F. nucleatum is the most commonly identified Fusobacterium, but F. necrophorum is the most virulent species. Fusobacteria are generally susceptible to penicillin, clindamycin, and chloramphenicol, and resistant to erythromycin and macrolides.

F. necrophorum can cause various diseases in domestic animals. It is known to be associated with bucket feeding because feeding buckets are often contaminated with feces. These bacteria can enter through abrasions in the mucosa of the pharynx and larynx and cause fever, depression, anorexia, salivation, respiratory distress and halitosis. Aspiration of necrotic material into lungs may cause fatal bronchopneumonia.

In cattle, F. necrophorum can cause calf diphtheria or necrotic laryngitis, and necrobacillosis of the mouth and pharynx of young calves. More severe infections may involve bovine liver abscesses and localized necrosis and scab formation of the teat orifice and sphincter of cows. It is also associated with metritis in dairy cows (Bicalho et al., 2012). In pigs, F. necrophorum may cause necrotic rhinitis whereas in sheep, it can cause interdigital dermatitis in association with D. nodosus and Acranobacter pyogenes. It also causes laryngeal chondritis in sheep and mixed infections in heel abscesses.

F. necrophorum is difficult to grow in culture and often requires selective media with subsequent phenotypic characterization. Molecular detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is highly specific, sensitive, and rapid. Thus, molecular method is a good alternative to traditional methods.


  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of Fusobacterium necrophorum infection
  • Help ensure that herds are free of this bacterium
  • Early prevention of spread of this bacterium among animals
  • Minimize human exposure to this bacterium
  • Safety monitoring of biological products that derive from susceptible animals.

Bicalho, M.L., Machado, V.S., Oikonomou, G., Gilbert, R.O. and Bicalho, R.C. (2012) Association between virulence factors of Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium necrophorum, and Arcanobacterium pyogenes and uterine diseases of dairy cows. Vet. Microbiol. 157:125-131.

Specimen requirement: Nasopharyngeal swabs, or fecal swabs, or 0.2 ml feces, or 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) tube, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed tissue.

Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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