avian & livestock assay data sheet
detection of Bordetella
avium by polymerase chain reaction
is the causative agent for bordetellosis in birds. It is a
small, gram-negative, non-fermentative, motile, strictly aerobic
bacillus that colonizes the trachea of chickens, turkeys and
other poultry. This bacterium was first isolated from young
turkeys in 1967 and was officially named
Bordetella avium in
1984. Studies have also shown that infection by this bacterium
is not limited to poultry; other birds can be carriers though
they may not develop symptoms of disease. The fact that there
are many carriers of this bacterium explains the frequent
outbreaks of the disease. The infection is not lethal, but
infected birds are susceptible to secondary infections, which
can lead to mortality. B.
avium outbreaks are responsible for severe economic
losses in poultry-producing regions of the world (Skeeles and
B. avium is similar
in behavior to its human counterpart, Bordetella pertussis (the
etiologic agent of whooping cough), there is no evidence that
B. avium can
infect humans. The bacterium is easily transmitted by aerosol,
leading to the rapid spread of the disease in high-density
Bordetellosis in psittacine birds manifests with upper
respiratory signs such as sneezing, nasal and ocular discharge,
swelling of the infraorbital sinus and lockjaw. Infection of the
lower airways is infrequent. Experimental inoculation with
B. avium in
cockatiel chicks suggests a 1-2 day incubation period.
B. avium by
culture is difficult because the bacterium requires special
growth conditions and growth is slow. Thus, many believe that
this disease may be underdiagnosed. Because of evidence
suggesting that recovered birds may periodically relapse or
remain asymptomatic carriers, it is imperative to use a more
sensitive test to detect the presence of the bacterium. PCR is a
highly sensitive and specific technique for detection of
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical
diagnosis of B. avium
Help ensure that bird populations are free of
Early prevention of spread of this bacterium among a
Minimize human exposure to
Safety monitoring of biological products that derive
Skeeles, J.K., and Arp, L.H. (1997) Bordetellosis (Turkey
Coryza), p. 275-288, In: B.W.
Calnek, H.J. Barnes, C.W.
Beard, L.R. McDougal, and Y.M. Saif (eds), Diseases of
Poultry. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.
0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) tube, or nasopharyngeal swab.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See shipping
instructions for more information.
2 business days