avian & livestock assay data sheet
Fowl adenoviruses group A and group E
Ultrasensitive detection of fowl adenovirus group A by real
Ultrasensitive detection of fowl adenovirus group E by real
Avian adenovirus is a group of non-enveloped double-stranded DNA viruses
that can be divided into three major groups: Group 1
(Aviadenovirus), Group 2 (Siadenovirus) and Group 3
(Atadenovirus). Group 1 avian adenovirus is made up of the fowl
adenovirus (FAdV) species. The FAdV species can further be
divided into 5 major species (A to E) with 12 different
serotypes. Since there are major differences in the nomenclature
of FAdV strains between the US and Europe, the use of the ICTV
(International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses) classification
is strongly recommended. According to ICTV classification,
serotypes can be grouped in the five FAdV species based on the
degree of DNA sequence homology of the hexon gene: FAdV-A
(serotype 1), FAdV-B (serotype 5), FAdV-C (serotypes 4 and 10),
FAdV-D (serotypes 2, 3, 9, 11) and FAdV-E (serotypes 6, 7, 8a
Fowl adenovirus infection of poultry can result in clinical diseases such
as inclusion body hepatitis (IBH), hydropericardium syndrome
(HPS) and avian gizzard erosion (AGE); infection can lead to
significant economic losses. Some FAdV serotypes are especially
associated with certain diseases. For example, IBH is mainly
caused by FAdV species D and E. IBH is mainly seen in broilers
or broiler breeders at the age of 7-18 days of life and vertical
transmission of the virus is indicated in most cases. The
mortality rate of IBH is between 10-40%. On the other hand, AGE
is mainly caused by FAdV-A and can induce a mortality rate of
5-15% at the age of 10-21 days with strong suggestion of
vertical transmission of the virus in early cases.
Typing of the virus traditionally required the isolation of the virus by
cell culture followed by a virus neutralization assay; however,
this approach was very labor intensive and lengthy. Furthermore,
cross-reactivity between serotypes can sometimes cause
inconclusive results. However, PCR testing can be used to
rapidly identify the avian adenovirus at the species level or
serotype level. In addition to diagnosis for individual birds or
flocks, this approach can also allow epidemiological tracing of
viral spread across regions.
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Help ensure that bird flocks and populations are free of this virus
Early prevention of spread of the virus among bird
Minimize human exposure to the virus
Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines
that derive from susceptible birds
Steer, P.A., Kirkpatrick, N.C., O'Rourke, D. and Noormohammadi, A.H.
(2009) Classification of fowl adenovirus serotypes by use of
high-resolution melting-curve analysis of the hexon gene region.
J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:311-321.
0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple
top) tube, or 0.2 ml feces, or cloacal swab,
or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed tissue.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See shipping
instructions for more information.
2 business days
Qualitative real time PCR