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Zoologix performs avian and livestock PCR tests for...

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

African swine fever

Akabane virus

Alcelaphine herpesvirus

AMPKγ3R200Q mutation in pigs

Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Aspergillus fumigatus

Aspergillus species

Atoxoplasma

Aujeszky's disease

Avian adenovirus

Avian herpes

Avian influenza

Avian polyomavirus

Avian reovirus

Avibacterium paragallinarum

Baylisascaris procyonis

Blood typing for swine

Bluetongue virus

Bordetella avium

Borna virus

Bovine adenovirus

Bovine endogenous retrovirus

Bovine enterovirus

Bovine ephemeral fever virus

Bovine herpesvirus 1

Bovine herpesvirus 2

Bovine herpesvirus 4

Bovine leukemia virus

Bovine papillomavirus

Bovine papular stomatitis virus

Bovine parvovirus

Bovine polyomavirus

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus

Bovine rhinoviruses

Bovine viral diarrhea type 1

Brachyspira pilosicoli

Brucella

Cache Valley virus

Camelpox

Campylobacter      

Candida

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus

Chlamydia/Chlamydophila genus

Chlamydophila psittaci

Classical swine fever

Clostridium

Coccidia

Coccidiodes

Coronaviruses

Cowpox

Coxiella burnetii

Cryptococcus

Cryptosporidium

Ebola Reston

E. coli O157:h7

Edwardsiella

Encephalomyocarditis

Enteric E. coli panel

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

Foot and mouth disease

Fowl adenovirus

Fowlpox

Fusobacterium necrophorum

Hepatitis E

Herpes, avian

Histoplasma

Infectious bronchitis

Infectious bursal disease

Infectious coryza

Infectious laryngotracheitis

Influenza type A

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV)

Japanese encephalitis

Jena virus

Johne's disease

Lawsonia intracellularis

Leptospira

Lumpy skin disease virus

Malaria

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)

Mites

Mycobacterium avium and other Mycobacteria

Mycoplasma species

Mycoplasma suis

Newcastle disease virus

Nipah virus

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale

Ovine herpesvirus 2

Pacheco's disease (psittacid herpesviruses)

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV)

Pigeon circovirus

Plasmodium species

Porcine adenovirus

Porcine circovirus 1

Porcine circovirus 2

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV)

Porcine enterovirus

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis

Porcine hemorrhagic enteropathy

Porcine intestinal adenomatosis

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV)

Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)

Poultry respiratory panel

Pseudocowpox

Pseudorabies

Psittacine beak and feather disease

Psittacine herpes

Q fever

Rabies

Reovirus

Rift Valley fever virus

Rinderpest virus

RyR1 R615C mutation in pigs

Salmonella

Staphylococcus xylosus

St. Louis encephalitis

Streptococcus

Swinepox

Swine vesicular disease

Taenia solium

Teschovirus (Teschen-Talfan disease)

Tickborne encephalitis virus

Trichinella spiralis

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Vaccinia

Valley fever

Vesicular exanthema of swine

Vesicular stomatitis

Wesselsbron virus

West Nile virus

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

...and more -- see the avian & livestock test menu for a complete listing of avian and livestock assays.

Fowl adenoviruses group A and group E PCR test
avian & livestock assay data sheet

Fowl adenoviruses group A and group E

Test code:
S0082 - Ultrasensitive detection of fowl adenovirus group A by real time PCR

Test code: S0252 - Ultrasensitive detection of fowl adenovirus group E by real time PCR

Avian adenovirus is a group of non-enveloped double-stranded DNA viruses that can be divided into three major groups: Group 1 (Aviadenovirus), Group 2 (Siadenovirus) and Group 3 (Atadenovirus). Group 1 avian adenovirus is made up of the fowl adenovirus (FAdV) species. The FAdV species can further be divided into 5 major species (A to E) with 12 different serotypes. Since there are major differences in the nomenclature of FAdV strains between the US and Europe, the use of the ICTV (International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses) classification is strongly recommended. According to ICTV classification, serotypes can be grouped in the five FAdV species based on the degree of DNA sequence homology of the hexon gene: FAdV-A (serotype 1), FAdV-B (serotype 5), FAdV-C (serotypes 4 and 10), FAdV-D (serotypes 2, 3, 9, 11) and FAdV-E (serotypes 6, 7, 8a and 8b).

Fowl adenovirus infection of poultry can result in clinical diseases such as inclusion body hepatitis (IBH), hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) and avian gizzard erosion (AGE); infection can lead to significant economic losses. Some FAdV serotypes are especially associated with certain diseases. For example, IBH is mainly caused by FAdV species D and E. IBH is mainly seen in broilers or broiler breeders at the age of 7-18 days of life and vertical transmission of the virus is indicated in most cases. The mortality rate of IBH is between 10-40%. On the other hand, AGE is mainly caused by FAdV-A and can induce a mortality rate of 5-15% at the age of 10-21 days with strong suggestion of vertical transmission of the virus in early cases.

Typing of the virus traditionally required the isolation of the virus by cell culture followed by a virus neutralization assay; however, this approach was very labor intensive and lengthy. Furthermore, cross-reactivity between serotypes can sometimes cause inconclusive results. However, PCR testing can be used to rapidly identify the avian adenovirus at the species level or serotype level. In addition to diagnosis for individual birds or flocks, this approach can also allow epidemiological tracing of viral spread across regions.

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Help ensure that bird flocks and populations are free of this virus
  • Early prevention of spread of the virus among bird populations
  • Minimize human exposure to the virus
  • Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines that derive from susceptible birds

References:
Steer, P.A., Kirkpatrick, N.C., O'Rourke, D. and Noormohammadi, A.H. (2009) Classification of fowl adenovirus serotypes by use of high-resolution melting-curve analysis of the hexon gene region. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:311-321.

Specimen requirements: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) tube, or 0.2 ml feces, or cloacal swab, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed tissue.

Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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