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Zoologix performs avian and livestock PCR tests for...

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

African swine fever

Akabane virus

Alcelaphine herpesvirus

AMPKγ3R200Q mutation in pigs

Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Aspergillus fumigatus

Aspergillus species


Aujeszky's disease

Avian adenovirus

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Avian influenza

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Avibacterium paragallinarum

Baylisascaris procyonis

Blood typing for swine

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Bordetella avium

Borna virus

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Bovine viral diarrhea type 1

Brachyspira pilosicoli


Cache Valley virus




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Chlamydia/Chlamydophila genus

Chlamydophila psittaci

Classical swine fever






Coxiella burnetii



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E. coli O157:h7



Enteric E. coli panel

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

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Fusobacterium necrophorum

Hepatitis E

Herpes, avian


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Infectious coryza

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Influenza type A

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Lawsonia intracellularis


Lumpy skin disease virus


Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)


Mycobacterium avium and other Mycobacteria

Mycoplasma species

Mycoplasma suis

Newcastle disease virus

Nipah virus

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale

Ovine herpesvirus 2

Pacheco's disease (psittacid herpesviruses)

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV)

Pigeon circovirus

Plasmodium species

Porcine adenovirus

Porcine circovirus 1

Porcine circovirus 2

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV)

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Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

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Porcine hemorrhagic enteropathy

Porcine intestinal adenomatosis

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV)

Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)

Poultry respiratory panel



Psittacine beak and feather disease

Psittacine herpes

Q fever



Rift Valley fever virus

Rinderpest virus

RyR1 R615C mutation in pigs


Staphylococcus xylosus

St. Louis encephalitis



Swine vesicular disease

Taenia solium

Teschovirus (Teschen-Talfan disease)

Tickborne encephalitis virus

Trichinella spiralis



Valley fever

Vesicular exanthema of swine

Vesicular stomatitis

Wesselsbron virus

West Nile virus

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

...and more -- see the avian & livestock test menu for a complete listing of avian and livestock assays.

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale PCR test

avian & livestock assay data sheet

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale

Test code:
B0064 - Qualitative detection of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale by polymerase chain reaction

B0064 is included in the poultry respiratory panel

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is a slow growing, pleomorphic, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium. Infected poultry show variable symptoms, and the severity of the disease is influenced by environmental factors such as poor management, inadequate ventilation, high stocking density, poor litter conditions, poor hygiene and concurrent infections. O. rhinotracheale is associated with high economic losses in poultry due to increased mortality and condemnation rates, decreased egg production or decreased performance.

Characteristic features of O. rhinotracheale infection include relatively mild respiratory signs in young birds, usually beginning with sneezing accompanied by slightly increased mortality and poor performance. Symptoms can disappear within one week but may worsen if the birds are co-infected with other pathogens. Upon post mortem examination, foamy white exudate may be seen in the air sacs.

O. rhinotracheale can also cause sudden death in young birds through brain infection, or skull infection which causes a weakening of the skull bones. This type of O. rhinotracheale infection may occur with or without the above-mentioned respiratory symptoms.

O. rhinotracheale occurs worldwide in commercial poultry and wild birds, suggesting a broad potential reservoir in the environment. Many wild birds and poultry thus may have been exposed to the bacteria. All over the world, maternally-derived antibodies against O. rhinotracheale can be detected in eggs and day-old birds.

Infection with O.rhinotracheale can easily be confused with other viral or bacterial infections. Although antibodies to the bacteria can be detected by serology testing shortly after the start of an infection, the antibody titers decline rapidly after peaking. In addition, very young birds may carry maternal antibodies so that serology testing will be unable to determine their infectious state. Finally, serology testing is affected by serotype differences, so some serotypes may be missed by commercial kits. Molecular detection is a rapid, specific and sensitive technique for detection of O. rhinotracheale (Empel and Hafez, 1999).


  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of O. rhinotracheale infection
  • Help ensure that bird populations are free of O. rhinotracheale
  • Early prevention of spread of this bacterium among a flock
  • Minimize human exposure to O. rhinotracheale
  • Safety monitoring of biological products that derive from birds

Empel P.C.M.V and Hafez H. M. (1999) Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale: a review. Avian Pathol. 28: 217-227.

Specimen requirements: Tracheal swab.

Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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