African swine fever PCR test
S0229 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of camelpox virus
by real time PCR
The camelpox virus (CMLV) belongs to the family poxviridae, subfamily
Orthopoxvirus. This DNA virus infects both Old World
camelids (eg dromedaries and bactrian camels) and New World camelids
(eg llamas, alpacas, vicunyas).
The virus was first reported in Russia and later in
India. The disease occurs throughout camel breeding areas of
Northern Africa, the Middle East, and Asia, but has not been
reported in wild camels in Australia.
Infected animals can develop fever, local or generalized pox lesions on
the skin and in the mucous membranes of the mouth and
respiratory tract. Lesions follow the usual pattern of pox
lesions, tending to be most concentrated around the face,
including eyelids, nostrils, and margins of the pinnae. In
severe cases, the whole head may be swollen. Intense pruritus
may be seen in acute cases. Later, skin lesions may extend to
the neck, limbs, genitalia, mammary glands, and perineum.
However, not all infected animals develop symptoms; the clinical
manifestation can range from asymptomatic infection to severe
systemic infection and death. Young animals and pregnant females
are more susceptible and usually develop more severe symptoms.
Camelpox is characterized by high morbidity and a relatively
high mortality rate in young animals.
The virus is usually transmitted either by direct contact between
infected and susceptible animals or by exposure to a
contaminated environment. The virus has the ability to remain
virulent for up to 4 months without a host. The virus may also
be transmitted by insects, in particular camel ticks (Hyalomma
Camelpox virus is typically host specific and normally does not infect
non-camelid species. However, zoonotic camelpox viral infection
in humans associated with outbreaks in dromedary camels (Camelus
dromedarius) was described in northeastern India in 2009.
Camelpox infection can sometimes be diagnosed based on clinical signs in
affected animals. However, the symptoms can be confused with
diseases caused by contagious ecthyma (orf-parapox virus),
papillomatosis or insect bites. Laboratory testing is needed to
definitively diagnose the disease-causing agent. Conventional
serological tests such as haemagglutination, haemagglutination
inhibition, neutralization, indirect ELISA, complement fixation,
and fluorescent antibody assays have been described to detect
CMLV antibodies, but these tests are time consuming, labor
intensive, and less sensitive, so they are generally not
suitable for primary diagnosis. Molecular detection by PCR is
sensitive, specific and rapid, and should be considered in
diagnosis of the disease (Balamurugan et al., 2009).
Help confirm the
disease causing agent
time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of
Help ensure that
camel herds and camelid populations are free of camelpox
prevention of spread of this virus among a herd or
population, or between species
Environmental monitoring for this virus
human exposure to this virus
monitoring of products that derive from camels or camelids
Balamurugan, V., Bhanuprakash, V., Hosamani, M., Kallesh, D.J., Bina
Chauhan, Venkatesan, G., Singh, R.K. (2009) A polymerase chain
reaction strategy for the diagnosis of camelpox. J. Vet. Diag.
Specimen requirement: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA
(purple top) tube, or 0.2 ml serum, or 0.2 ml
urine, or lesion swab, or pus swab, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen
or fixed tissue.
if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type
for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen
types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm
specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See shipping
instructions for more information.
2 business days
real time polymerase chain reaction