avian & livestock assay data sheet
B0098 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of
bacteria by real time polymerase chain reaction
The genus Streptococcus can be
taxonomically divided into six major clusters
comprising at least 31 species; the following
table lists some of the species classified in
agalactiae, S. canis, S. dysgalactiae, S. equi,
S. iniae, S. porcinus, S. pyogenes
S. equinus, S. alactolyticus
salivarius, S. thermophilus, S. vestibularis
cricetus, S. downei, S. mutans, S. sobrinus
Anginosus group (aka Milleri
anginosus, S. constellatus, S. intermedius
S. oralis, S. pneumoniae, S. sanguis, S.
parasanguis, S. gordonii.
No single classification system adequately differentiates this
heterogeneous group of organisms. Instead,
classification depends on a combination of
phenotypic biochemical and genetic
characteristics, such as patterns of hemolysis
observed on blood agar plates, antigenic
composition, growth characteristics, biochemical
reactions, and genetic analysis (Poyart et al.,
In clinical laboratories, the current means of identification of
streptococci relies on phenotypic tests such as
those developed for the API ID 32 Strep system.
However, not all strains within a given species
may be positive for a common trait, and the same
strain may exhibit some biochemical variability.
Moreover, small alterations in the performance
of one of these tests may yield false results.
Thus phenotypic test results can be equivocal
for identification of certain streptococcal
species, in particular, those belonging to the
Milleri, Mutans, and Mitis groups.
However, molecular detection of
Streptococcus bacteria by PCR is helpful to
quickly identify the bacteria; subsequent
genetic sequence analysis can then be performed
on the PCR amplicon if necessary, to further
characterize the bacteria.
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical
Help ensure that flocks are free of
Early prevention of spread of
Minimize personnel exposure to these bacteria
Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines
that derive from susceptible mammals and birds
Poyart, C., Quesne, G.,
Berche, P. and Trieu-cuot, P. (1998)
Identification of Streptococci to species level
by sequencing the gene encoding the
manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase. J.
Clin. Microbiol. 36:41-47.
0.2 ml EDTA whole blood, or nasopharyngeal swab, or 0.2 ml culture, or
0.1 ml fresh, frozen or fixed tissue
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
For all specimen types, if there will be a delay
in shipping, or during very warm weather,
refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping
requirements are specified. Frozen specimens
should be shipped so as to remain frozen in
transit. See shipping
instructions for more information.
2 business days
Qualitative real time PCR