Moving reptiles?  Use our snake and lizard quarantine PCR panel to avoid spreading contagious agents.

Ruminating about hoofstock issues?  Try our ruminant fecal screening PCR panel - tests for most common GI pathogens in wild & domestic ruminants.

Our Rodent Infestation PCR Panel tests for 5 common pathogens found in rodent-contaminated facilities.

In over your head? Try our waterborne pathogens PCR panel - detection of 7 different environmental pathogens by real time PCR.

Something fishy going on in your tanks? Try our new Zebrafish screening PCR panel - tests for 6 different pathogen categories from one easy-to-collect sample.

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Zoologix performs environmental, zoo, wildlife and aquatic PCR tests for...

Aeromonas hydrophila

African swine fever

Aleutian disease

Amphibian panel

Anisakis worms



Bacillus species

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

Baylisascaris procyonis

Borna virus

Borrelia burgdorferi



Canine circovirus

Canine distemper

Canine parvovirus

Capillaria xenopodis


Chlamydophila pneumoniae

Chytrid fungus

Citrobacter freundii

Classical swine fever





Coxiella burnetii



Cryptosporidium serpentis

Cryptosporidium varanii (formerly saurophilum)

Delftia acidovorans

E. coli O157:H7

E. coli panel



Enterobacter cloacae


Epizootic hemorrhagic disease

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)

Feline panleukopenia

Ferret respiratory enteric coronavirus

Francisella tularensis




Hepatitis E

Herring worms


Influenza type A

Influenza type B

Japanese encephalitis

Johne's disease

Kangaroo herpesviruses


Lawsonia intracellularis




Listeria monocytogenes

Lizard quarantine panel

Lyme disease

Macropodid (kangaroo) herpesviruses


Mink enteritis virus


Mycobacteria in mammals, amphibians and fish

Mycoplasma mustelae

Mycoplasma species

Neospora caninum

Nipah virus

Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola

Pasteurella multocida

Pentastomid worms

Plasmodium species

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Pseudocapillaria tomentosa

Pseudocapillaroides xenopi

Pseudoloma neurophilia


Pseudoterranova worms

Q fever


Raillietiella orientalis


Reovirus screen


Rift Valley fever



Sarcocystis neurona

Snake fungal disease

Snake quarantine panel

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

St. Louis encephalitis

Strep pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes

Swine vesicular disease

Tongue worms

Toxoplasma gondii

Treponema pallidum


Trypanosoma cruzi

Trypanosoma evansi


Turtle fraservirus


Valley Fever

Vesicular stomatitis


West Nile virus

White nose syndrome

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

Trypanosoma cruzi PCR test
wildlife and zoo assay data sheet

Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas' disease)

Test code:
X0010 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Trypanosoma cruzi by real time polymerase chain reaction


Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan parasite, causes Chagas' disease (“American trypanosomiasis”). It is transmitted through parasitic blood-feeding arthropod vectors of the family Reduviidae, particularly Triatoma spp. (assassin bugs or  "kissing bugs"), which occur naturally in Central and South America. These insects normally transmit the infectious stages of the protozoa to mammals through contamination of the insect's bite by its feces, although vertical transmission of T. cruzi has also been shown to occur (Azogue et al., 1985; Miles, 1972). Various mammals, including human beings, are the natural hosts of Triatoma spp. as well as T. cruzi. Wild-caught New World monkeys from Central or South America are often infected with Trypanosoma species, including T. cruzi. Old World monkeys, including some macaques (eg Macaca mulatta, Macaca silenus, Macaca nigra) and lemurs (eg Lemur catta), are also susceptible when translocated into the geographic range of reduviids or when experimentally infected.

Infected animals may remain subclinical for years or may infrequently produce a variety of clinical effects such as anorexia, dyspnea, fever, leukocytosis, lymphadenopathy and myocarditis. During remission, the parasite may remain undetectable in the blood for long periods, then return to detectable levels periodically, often triggered by stress or immune system challenge. In humans, reactivation of Chagas' disease in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been reported since the early 1990s. The clinical manifestations of reactivated Chagas' disease are severe central nervous system (CNS) alterations and cardiomyopathy. Trypomastigotes of T. cruzi, observed by direct microscopic examination of blood smears, characterize the acute phase of infection and confirm Chagas' disease reactivation. Reactivation of T. cruzi has also been reported in rhesus monkeys experimentally infected with SIV.

Traditional laboratory diagnosis of T. cruzi relies on blood smear observation or serological detection. Unfortunately, these methods lack sensitivity and specificity. PCR detection of this parasite offers significant advantages over traditional methods in terms of both specificity and sensitivity (Ndao et al., 2000; Gutierrez et al., 2004).


  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of T. cruzi infection.
  • Help ensure that animal groups and populations are free of T. cruzi
  • Early prevention of spread of this parasite among a population
  • Minimize human exposure to this parasite

Azogue, E., La Fuente, C. and Darras, C. (1985) Congenital Chagas' disease in Bolivia: epidemiological aspects and pathological findings. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 79:176-180.
Gutierrez, R., Angulo, V.M., Tarazona, Z., Britto, C. and Fernandes, O. (2004) Comparison of four serological tests for the diagnosis of Chagas disease in a Colombian endemic area. Parasitology. 129:439-444.
Miles, M.A. (1972) Trypanosoma cruzi-milk transmission of infection and immunity from mother to young. Parasitology 65:1-9.
Ndao, M., Kelly, N., Normandin, D., Maclean, J.D., Whiteman, A., Kokoskin, E., Arevalo, I. and Ward, B.J. (2000) Trypanosoma cruzi infection of squirrel monkeys: comparison of blood smear examination, commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and polymerase chain reaction analysis as screening tests for evaluation of monkey-related injuries. Comp. Med. 50:658-665.

Specimen requirement: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) tube, or 0.2 ml plasma, serum or CSF.

Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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