Moving reptiles?  Use our snake and lizard quarantine PCR panel to avoid spreading contagious agents.

Ruminating about hoofstock issues?  Try our ruminant fecal screening PCR panel - tests for most common GI pathogens in wild & domestic ruminants.

Our Rodent Infestation PCR Panel tests for 5 common pathogens found in rodent-contaminated facilities.

In over your head? Try our waterborne pathogens PCR panel - detection of 7 different environmental pathogens by real time PCR.

Something fishy going on in your tanks? Try our new Zebrafish screening PCR panel - tests for 6 different pathogen categories from one easy-to-collect sample.

* * *

Zoologix performs environmental, zoo, wildlife and aquatic PCR tests for...

Aeromonas hydrophila

African swine fever

Aleutian disease

Amphibian panel

Anisakis worms

Aspergillus

Babesia

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

Baylisascaris procyonis

Borna virus

Borrelia burgdorferi

Camelpox

Campylobacter

Canine circovirus

Canine distemper

Canine parvovirus

Capillaria xenopodis

Chlamydia/
Chlamydophila

Chlamydophila pneumoniae

Chytrid fungus

Citrobacter freundii

Classical swine fever

Clostridium

Coccidia

Coccidioides

Coronaviruses

Coxiella burnetii

Cryptococcosis

Cryptosporidium

Cryptosporidium serpentis

Cryptosporidium varanii (formerly saurophilum)

Delftia acidovorans

E. coli O157:H7

E. coli panel

Edwardsiella

Encephalomyocarditis

Enterobacter cloacae

Enterovirus

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)

Feline panleukopenia

Ferret respiratory enteric coronavirus

Giardia

Hantavirus

Helicobacter

Hepatitis E

Herring worms

Histoplasma

Influenza

Japanese encephalitis

Johne's disease

Kangaroo herpesviruses

Klebsiella

Lawsonia intracellularis

Legionella

Leishmania

Leptospira

Listeria monocytogenes

Lizard quarantine panel

Lyme disease

Macropodid (kangaroo) herpesviruses

Malaria

Mink enteritis virus

Monkeypox

Mycobacteria in mammals, amphibians and fish

Mycoplasma mustelae

Mycoplasma species

Neospora caninum

Nipah virus

Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola

Pasteurella multocida

Plasmodium species

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Pseudocapillaria tomentosa

Pseudocapillaroides xenopi

Pseudoloma neurophilia

Pseudorabies

Pseudoterranova worms

Q fever

Rabies

Ranavirus

Reovirus screen

Rickettsia

Rift Valley fever

Rotavirus

Salmonella

Sarcocystis neurona

Snake fungal disease

Snake quarantine panel

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

St. Louis encephalitis

Strep pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes

Swine vesicular disease

Toxoplasma gondii

Treponema pallidum

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Trypanosoma cruzi

Trypanosoma evansi

Vaccinia

Valley Fever

Vesicular stomatitis

Vibrio

West Nile virus

White nose syndrome

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis


Plasmodium PCR test

wildlife and zoo assay data sheet

Malaria (Plasmodium species)

Test codes:

X0014 - Ultrasensitive qualitative screen for Plasmodium species by real time PCR. This assay detects but does not differentiate most malaria-causing Plasmodium species, including P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. knowlesi, P. fieldi, P. hylobati, P. juxtanucleare, P. yoelii, P. brasilianum, P. cynomolgi, P. inui, P. schwetzi, P. reichenowi, P. eyles, P.jefferyi, P. youngi, P. pitheci, P. silvaticum, P. coatneyi, P. fragile, P. simiovale, P. gonderi, P. simium, P. cathemerium, P. gallinaceum and P. relictum.

X0012 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Plasmodium inui by real time PCR. This assay does not detect other Plasmodium species.

 

Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. The parasites are transmitted by infected mosquitos. As the infected female mosquito takes a blood meal, it injects the parasite, which travels in the bloodstream to the liver. Inside the liver, the organism undergoes several developmental changes leading to the release of a large number of merozoites. These merozoites invade the red blood cells. The asexual stages often seen in blood films are young trophozoites (also known as “ring forms”), mature trophozoites, and the dividing schizonts that yield the merozoites for a new generation. The liver then acts as a reservoir from which periodic bouts of parasitemia may emanate.

Parasitemia in infected animals can fluctuate dramatically over short periods, so Plasmodium screening should be performed at multiple time points. In particular, stress or other immune-suppressive events may trigger an increase in parasitemia from previously undetectable levels. Therefore it is ideal when feasible to screen using liver or spleen biopsy, because the titer of Plasmodium organisms is more consistently detectable in these tissues than in peripheral blood.

Traditionally, malaria screening and diagnosis relied on microscopic examination of blood smears. This method is fast and cheap but has a very low sensitivity. Successful detection in blood smears also depends on collecting the specimen at the peak of the parasitemia. Antibody detection can be used to diagnose the disease but paired serum samples several weeks apart are required in order to identify actively infected animals, making rapid diagnosis impossible. Furthermore, most serology testing currently available targets the Plasmodium species that infect humans, such as P. malariae, P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. ovale. Reagents used for these human serology tests are not useful for screening for malaria in animals. Molecular detection by PCR is a rapid, specific and sensitive method for accurately diagnosing and identifying carriers.

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Help ensure that animal colonies are free of malaria
  • Early prevention of spread of malaria among a colony
  • Minimize personnel exposure to malaria
  • Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines that derive from susceptible animals

References:
Cogswell, F.B. (2000) Malaria and Piroplasms of non-human primates. In: Companion and Exotic Animal Parasitology, Bowman D.D. (Ed). A0304.0600.

Preferred specimen: 0.2 ml liver or spleen tissue.

Less preferred specimen: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube.

Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

2003-2020 Zoologix, Inc. • Email Zoologix • Phone (818) 717-8880