Moving reptiles?  Use our snake and lizard quarantine PCR panel to avoid spreading contagious agents.

Ruminating about hoofstock issues?  Try our ruminant fecal screening PCR panel - tests for most common GI pathogens in wild & domestic ruminants.

Our Rodent Infestation PCR Panel tests for 5 common pathogens found in rodent-contaminated facilities.

In over your head? Try our waterborne pathogens PCR panel - detection of 7 different environmental pathogens by real time PCR.

Something fishy going on in your tanks? Try our new Zebrafish screening PCR panel - tests for 6 different pathogen categories from one easy-to-collect sample.

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Zoologix performs environmental, zoo, wildlife and aquatic PCR tests for...

Aeromonas hydrophila

African swine fever

Aleutian disease

Amphibian panel

Anisakis worms



Bacillus species

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

Baylisascaris procyonis

Borna virus

Borrelia burgdorferi



Canine circovirus

Canine distemper

Canine parvovirus

Capillaria xenopodis


Chlamydophila pneumoniae

Chytrid fungus

Citrobacter freundii

Classical swine fever





Coxiella burnetii



Cryptosporidium serpentis

Cryptosporidium varanii (formerly saurophilum)

Delftia acidovorans

E. coli O157:H7

E. coli panel



Enterobacter cloacae


Epizootic hemorrhagic disease

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)

Feline panleukopenia

Ferret respiratory enteric coronavirus

Francisella tularensis




Hepatitis E

Herring worms


Influenza type A

Influenza type B

Japanese encephalitis

Johne's disease

Kangaroo herpesviruses


Lawsonia intracellularis




Listeria monocytogenes

Lizard quarantine panel

Lyme disease

Macropodid (kangaroo) herpesviruses


Mink enteritis virus


Mycobacteria in mammals, amphibians and fish

Mycoplasma mustelae

Mycoplasma species

Neospora caninum

Nipah virus

Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola

Pasteurella multocida

Pentastomid worms

Plasmodium species

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Pseudocapillaria tomentosa

Pseudocapillaroides xenopi

Pseudoloma neurophilia


Pseudoterranova worms

Q fever


Raillietiella orientalis


Reovirus screen


Rift Valley fever



Sarcocystis neurona

Snake fungal disease

Snake quarantine panel

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

St. Louis encephalitis

Strep pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes

Swine vesicular disease

Tongue worms

Toxoplasma gondii

Treponema pallidum


Trypanosoma cruzi

Trypanosoma evansi


Turtle fraservirus


Valley Fever

Vesicular stomatitis


West Nile virus

White nose syndrome

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

Enterobacter cloacae PCR tests

wildlife and zoo assay data sheet

Enterobacter cloacae

Test codes:

B0088 - Qualitative ultrasensitive detection of Enterobacter cloacae only, by real time PCR.
B0089 - Qualitative ultrasensitive detection of Enterobacter cloacae complex, by real time PCR.

Bacteria of the Enterobacter genus are facultative anaerobic Gram-negative strains belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae and are ubiquitous in the environment. These bacteria can be found in soil and sewage, and as normal gastrointestinal flora of humans and many animal species.

Currently, six species have been assigned to the Enterobacter cloacae complex, including E. cloacae, E. asburiae, E. hormaechei, E. kobei, E. ludwigii and E. nimipressuralis. Among them, E. cloacae is most important because it accounts for up to 5% of hospital-acquired sepsis, 5% of nosocomial pneumonias, 4% of nosocomial urinary tract infections and 10% of postsurgical peritonitis cases. E. cloacae tends to contaminate various medical, intravenous and other hospital devices, and nosocomial outbreaks of E. cloacae have been associated with its colonization of certain surgical equipment and operative cleaning solutions. E. nimipressuralis is a plant pathogen and has not been associated with human diseases.

Members of E. cloacae complex have general characteristics of the genus Enterobacter: they are catalase-positive, oxidase- and DNAase-negative, fermentative and nonpigmented. They can be routinely identified using phenotypic methods. However, identification solely based on phenotypic methods may lead to misidentification. For example, E. hormaechei can be misidentified as Cronobacter sakazakii based on phenotypic methods (Townsend et al., 2008). However, molecular detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is highly specific and sensitive and can help the identification process.


  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of infection by these Enterobacteraceae
  • Help ensure animal groups and populations are free of these Enterobacteraceae
  • Early prevention of spread of these bacteria among a population
  • Minimize human exposure to these bacteria
  • Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines that derive from susceptible animals

Townsend, S.M., Hurrell, E., Caubilla-Barron, J., Loc-Carrillo, C. and Forsythe, S.J. (2008) Characterization of an extended-spectrum betalactamase Enterobacter hormaechei nosocomial outbreak, and other Enterobacter hormaechei misidentified as Cronobacter (Enterobacter) sakazakii. Microbiology 154:3659–3667.

Specimen requirement:  0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) tube, or 0.2 ml food, or 0.2 ml urine, or nasopharyngeal swab, or rectal swab, or 0.2 ml feces.

Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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