environmental, wildlife and zoo assay data sheet
- Qualitative Campylobacter
species screen by real time polymerase chain reaction.
This assay detects but does not differentiate
C. jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus,
C. lari and other Campylobacter species.
Test B0006 is
- waterborne pathogens screening panel
and in P0047 - ruminant fecal
- Qualitative detection of
real time polymerase chain reaction.
Campylobacteraceae includes 2 genera,
There are 18 species and subspecies within the genus
Campylobacter, 11 of
which are considered pathogenic to humans, causing enteric and
extra-intestinal illnesses. The major pathogens are
Campylobacter jejuni and
Campylobacter fetus. These pathogens are small,
curved, motile, microaerophilic, gram-negative rods. They vary
in width from 0.2-0.9 um and in length from 0.5-5.0 um. They
exhibit rapid, darting motility in corkscrew fashion by means of
a single flagellum or 2 flagella (monotrichous, amphitrichous).
They also possess a lipopolysaccharide endotoxin.
Campylobacteriosis is the infectious disease caused by bacteria
of the genus Campylobacter. Most people suffering from campylobacteriosis
develop diarrhea, cramping, abdominal pain, and fever within 2
to 5 days after exposure to the organism. The diarrhea may be
bloody and can be accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The
symptoms may last for one week. Some persons infected with
however, may be asymptomatic. In persons with compromised immune
can occasionally spread to the bloodstream and causes a serious
get campylobacteriosis usually recover completely within 2 to 5
days, although sometimes recovery can take up to 10 days.
Although rare, long-term consequences sometimes result from
infection. Some people may have arthritis following
campylobacteriosis; others may develop a rare disease that
affects the nerves of the body beginning several weeks after the
diarrheal illness. This disease, called Guillain-Barré syndrome,
occurs when a person's immune system is "triggered" to attack
the body's own nerves, and can lead to paralysis that lasts
several weeks and usually requires intensive care. It is
estimated that approximately one in 1000 reported
campylobacteriosis cases leads to Guillain-Barré syndrome. As
many as 40% of Guillain-Barré syndrome cases in the United
States may be caused by campylobacteriosis.
of nonhuman primates, recurring diarrhea is the leading cause of
animal morbidity requiring veterinary care (Elmore et al., 1992;
Munoz-Zanzi et al., 1999) and one of the leading causes for this
chronic enterocolitis is infection with
bacteria, especially C. coli
and C. jejuni (Sestak et al., 2003). Recently,
infection has also been linked to fetal death of Rhesus macaques
(Baze, and Bernacky, 2002). Because macaques can be asymptomatic
carriers and Campylobacter-induced
diarrhea is common, this finding has implications for breeding
success in nonhuman primate breeding colonies.
bacteria isolation can be used to diagnose the bacterial
infection, a long incubation period is required to obtain
results. Furthermore, bacterial culture is not very sensitive
nor specific, and it increases the potential risk of laboratory
personnel contacting the bacteria. Subspecies identification by
culture can be difficult due to new variants.
detection by PCR is not only rapid, sensitive and specific, but
can also accurately subtype the bacteria.
Help confirm the
disease causing agent
Help ensure that
animal groups or populations are free of Campylobacter
prevention of spread of the bacteria among an animal group
human exposure to the bacteria
Elmore, D. B., J. H. Anderson, D. W. Hird, K. D. Sanders, and N.
W. Lerche (1992). Diarrhea rates and risk factors for developing
chronic diarrhea in infant and juvenile rhesus monkeys. Lab.
Anim. Sci. 42:356-359.
Munoz-Zanzi, C. A., M. C. Thurmond,
D. W. Hird, and N. W. Lerche (1999) Effect of weaning time and
associated management practices on postweaning chronic diarrhea
in captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Lab. Anim. Sci.
Sestak, K., Merritt, C.K., Borda, J., Saylor,
E., Schwamberger, S.R., Cogswell, F., Didier, E.S., Didier,
P.J., Plauche, G., Bohm, R.P., Aye, P.P., Alexa, P., Ward, R.
and Lackner, A.A. (2003) Infectious agent and immune response
characteristics of chronic enterocolitis in captive rhesus
macaques. Infect Immun. 71:4079-86.
Baze, W.B. and Bernacky,
B.J. (2002) Campylobacter-induced fetal death in a rhesus
monkey. Vet Pathol. 39:605-7.
Kulkarni, S.P., Lever, S.,
Logan, J.M., Lawson, A.J., Stanley, J. and Shafi, M.S. (2002)
Detection of campylobacter species: a comparison of culture and
polymerase chain reaction based methods. J Clin Pathol.
- 0.2 ml feces, rectal swab, or 0.2 ml bacterial culture.
- 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) tube.
if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type
for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen
types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm
specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See shipping
instructions for more information.
2 business days
Qualitative real time PCR