wildlife and zoo assay data sheet
Capillaria xenopodis / Pseudocapillaroides xenopi
X0037 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of
by real time PCR.
a capillarid nematode first described in a group of African
clawed frogs in the 1970s. In 1982, the parasite was named
by Moravec and Cosgrove. However, in another report by Wade in
the same year, the same parasite was also described and was
named by Wade as
Capillaria xenopodis. Ever since then, the two names have
been used interchangeably.
xenopodis/Pseudocapillaroides xenopi infection of frogs is characterized by profound
epidermal hyperplasia along with the presence of the nematodes
and eggs in tunnels within the epidermis. Epidermal hyperplasia
leads to significant impairment of normal epidermal functions,
such as respiratory and metabolic functions (including gas
exchange, waste removal, and osmotic balance) of the skin; and
physical barrier of the skin to prevent localized secondary skin
infections and septicemia (including infection by gram-negative
bacteria such as Aeromonas hydrophila, the cause of red leg). Untreated infection can
lead to overall debilitation and death of the animal.
xenopodis/Pseudocapillaroides xenopi is an aphasmid nematode; key histologic
characteristics of aphasmid nematodes include a thin smooth
external cuticle with hypodermal bacillary bands, unapparent
musculature, an esophagus encased by a stichosome, and presence
of a single uterus in females. Specific characteristics of
xenopodis/Pseudocapillaroides xenopi include sexual
dimorphism (females are 4 times longer and 2 times wider than
males), and the presence of unembryonated and embryonated eggs
within the uterus (as opposed to presence of only unembryonated
eggs in other aphasmid nematodes). This parasite completes all
stages of its lifecycle within the epidermis of the host.
Because of the direct lifecycle, autoinfection is possible.
Transmission of the parasite can be through ingestion of the
parasite’s eggs in desquamated skin, or through autoinfection.
Diagnosis of this parasitic infection by microscopic examination is not
very sensitive. However, molecular detection by polymerase chain
reaction is a rapid, specific and sensitive method for
identifying these parasites (Feldman and Ramirez, 2014).
Help confirm the
disease causing agent
time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of the infection
parasite-free frog colonies
prevention of spread of this parasite between animals
human exposure to this parasite
Safety monitoring of biological products that derive from
Feldman, S.H. and Ramirez, M.P. (2014) Molecular phylogeny of
(Moravec et Cosgrov 1982) and development of a quantitative PCR
Assay for its detection in aquarium sediment. J. Am. Assoc. Lab.
Anim. Sci. 53: 668–674.
Skin swab, or lesion swab, or environmental
swab, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed skin tissue.
if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type
for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen
types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm
specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See shipping
instructions for more information.
2 business days
Qualitative real time PCR
Capillaria / Pseudocapillaroides PCR test