wildlife and zoo assay data sheet
Influenza type B
- Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of influenza B virus by reverse transcription coupled real time polymerase chain reaction. This assay
does not detect influenza types A, C or D.
There are four types of influenza viruses: A, B, C and D. All influenza
viruses are RNA viruses. Human influenza A and B viruses cause
seasonal epidemics of disease. Influenza A viruses are the only
influenza viruses known to cause flu pandemics, i.e., global
epidemics of flu disease. Influenza A viruses have a very broad
host range; they are also known to infect birds, pigs, horses,
dogs and non-human primates.
Influenza B virus is only known to infect humans, seals and ferrets.
Influenza B mutates at a rate two to three times slower than
type A and consequently influenza B is less genetically diverse.
Due to this lack of antigenic diversity, immunity to influenza B
virus is usually acquired at an early age, though such immunity
typically does not last a lifetime. Pandemics of influenza B
infection are unlikely due to influenza B’s lower rate of
antigenic change and its limited host range.
Influenza type C infections generally cause mild illness and are not
thought to cause human flu epidemics. Influenza D viruses
primarily affect cattle and are not known to infect or cause
illness in people.
Influenza B virus is the only species in the genus
Betainfluenzavirus of the family Orthomyxoviridae. The Influenza B
viral genome consists of eight segments of linear negative-sense
single-stranded RNA. Each RNA segment is enclosed in separate
nucleocapsid, and the nucleocapsids are surrounded by one
envelope. Influenza B viruses are not divided into subtypes but
there are two recognized lineages of influenza B, B/Yamagata and
Viral culture to detect influenza B virus is slow and not very sensitive.
Antigen detection method is rapid but is not very sensitive. The
current method of choice for detection of influenza B virus is
molecular detection by polymerase chain reaction, which is
highly sensitive and specific (Azar and Landry, 2018).
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical
diagnosis of influenza B
Help ensure that animal groups are free of influenza B
Early prevention of spread of this virus
Minimize personnel exposure to this virus
Azar, M. M., & Landry, M. L. (2018). Detection of Influenza A and B
Viruses and Respiratory Syncytial Virus by Use of Clinical
Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA)-Waived
Point-of-Care Assays: a Paradigm Shift to Molecular Tests. J.
Clin. Microbiol. 56: e00367-18.
- nasopharyngeal swab.
- 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top)
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions. For all
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.
2 business days
reverse transcription coupled real time PCR