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Zoologix performs environmental, zoo, wildlife and aquatic PCR tests for...

Aeromonas hydrophila

African swine fever

Aleutian disease

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Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

Baylisascaris procyonis

Borna virus

Borrelia burgdorferi



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Citrobacter freundii

Classical swine fever





Coxiella burnetii


Cryptosporidium serpentis

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Delftia acidovorans

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E. coli panel





Epizootic hemorrhagic disease

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

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Lizard quarantine panel

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Macropodid (kangaroo) herpesviruses

Mink enteritis virus


Mycobacteria in mammals, amphibians and fish

Mycoplasma mustelae

Mycoplasma species

Neospora caninum

Nipah virus

Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola

Pasteurella multocida

Porcine cytomegalovirus

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Porcine parvovirus

Pseudocapillaria tomentosa

Pseudoloma neurophilia


Q fever



Reovirus screen


Rift Valley fever



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Snake fungal disease

Snake quarantine panel

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

St. Louis encephalitis

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Streptococcus pyogenes

Swine vesicular disease

Toxoplasma gondii

Treponema pallidum


Trypanosoma cruzi

Trypanosoma evansi


Valley Fever

Vesicular stomatitis


West Nile virus

White nose syndrome

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

Swine vesicular disease PCR test
wildlife and zoo assay data sheet

Swine vesicular disease

Test code:
S0125 - Ultrasensitive detection of swine vesicular disease virus by reverse transcription coupled real time PCR


Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is a porcine enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae. It is antigenically related to the human enterovirus Coxsackie B-5 but is unrelated to other known porcine enteroviruses.

Pigs are the only species naturally infected, but laboratory personnel have been infected due to occupational exposure.

Pigs infected with this virus show almost identical clinical signs to foot-and-
mouth disease (FMD) in pigs. The clinical signs include fever, salivation and lameness. Vesicles and erosions can be seen on the snout, mammary glands, coronary band, and interdigital areas. Vesicles in the oral cavity are relatively rare. The infection may be subclinical, mild, or severe depending on the virulence of the strain. Severe signs are generally seen only in pigs housed on damp concrete. Younger animals can be more severely affected. Neurologic signs due to encephalitis, such as shivering, unsteady gait, and chorea (rhythmic jerking) of the legs, are rare. Abortion is not typically seen. Recovery occurs within 2 to 3 weeks, usually with little permanent damage.

Transmission of the virus can occur by ingestion of contaminated meat scraps or contact with infected animals or their feces. Pigs can excrete the virus from the nose, mouth, and in feces up to 48 hours before clinical signs are seen. Virus can be shed in the feces for up to three months following infection. Furthermore, SVDV can survive for long periods of time in the environment; it is resistant to heat up to 69C (157F) and pH ranging from 2.5 to 12. It can also survive up to two years in lymphoid tissue contained in dried, salted, or smoked meat.

Swine vesicular disease is considered to be moderately contagious. Compared to FMD, morbidity is lower and the lesions are less severe. Mortality is not generally a concern with swine vesicular disease.

Although neither disease is currently present in North America, differentiation of these two vesicular diseases is still important because the introduction of FMD could cause severe economic losses.

Swine vesicular disease or other vesicular diseases should be suspected when vesicles or erosions are found on the snout and/or feet of pigs. Differentials for swine vesicular disease include FMD, vesicular stomatitis, vesicular exanthema of swine, and chemical or thermal burns. In swine vesicular disease outbreaks, pigs will be the only species affected, the lesions will be mild, and there will be no mortality. Other vesicular diseases must be ruled out with laboratory tests.

SVDV can be identified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the direct complement fixation test, and virus isolation in pig-derived cell cultures. Virus neutralization and ELISA can be used for serological diagnosis. However, all these methods are relatively nonspecific and are labor intensive to perform. Molecular detection by PCR can enable rapid, specific and sensitive characterization of the virus (Ferris et al., 2006; Reid et al. 2004).


  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Identify SVDV virus carriers
  • Help ensure that animal colonies and populations are free of SVDV
  • Early prevention of spread of the virus among animals
  • Minimize human exposure to the virus
  • Safety monitoring of biological products that derive from animals

Ferris, N.P., King, D.P., Reid, S.M., Hutchings, G.H., Shaw, A.E., Paton, D.J., Goris, N., Haas, B., Hoffmann, B., Brocchi, E., Bugnetti, M., Dekker, A. and De Clercq, K. (2006) Foot-and-mouth disease virus: a first inter-laboratory comparison trial to evaluate virus isolation and RT-PCR detection methods. Vet Microbiol. 117:130-40.

Reid, S.M., Paton, D.J., Wilsden, G., Hutchings, G.H., King, D.P., Ferris, N.P. and Alexandersen, S. (2004) Use of automated real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to monitor experimental swine vesicular disease virus infection in pigs. J. Comp. Pathol. 131:308-17.

Specimen requirements: Vesicular fluid or lesion swab, or 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or 0.2 ml feces, or 0.2 ml fresh or frozen tissue.

Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative reverse transcription coupled real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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