NEW - Neuro symptoms getting on your nerves? Try our canine neurological panel - 6 neurological pathogens from 1 CSF sample; or our feline neurological panel - 5 neurological pathogens from 1 CSF sample.

Oh baby! Try our canine breeding PCR panel - 3 canine sexually transmitted diseases tested from swabs or semen samples.

Respiratory symptoms got you breathless? Try our canine respiratory PCR panel - we test for 6 canine respiratory pathogens from throat, nasal and eye swabs.

...or maybe you need our feline respiratory PCR panel -- 6 feline respiratory pathogens from throat, nasal and eye swabs.

Diarrhea got you on the run? Try our canine diarrhea PCR panel -- 8 major diarrheagenic agents from 1 fecal specimen...
...OR our 9-pathogen feline diarrhea PCR panel.

Not feeling sanguine about bloodborne pathogens in cats? Try our feline bloodborne PCR panel -- 4 major bloodborne pathogens from 1 blood sample.

Ticks bugging you? Try our tickborne disease PCR panel -- 7 major tickborne pathogens from 1 blood sample.

Just plain sick and tired? Try our canine anemia PCR panel or our feline anemia PCR panel -- detect and differentiate multiple anemia pathogens from 1 blood sample.

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Zoologix performs canine and feline PCR tests for...

Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Anaplasma platys

Aspergillus species

Aspergillus fumigatus

Babesia

Bartonella

Baylisascaris procyonis

Bordetella bronchiseptica

Borrelia burgdorferi

Brucella

Campylobacter

Canine adenovirus type 1

Canine adenovirus type 2

Canine enteric coronavirus (CCV1)

Canine distemper

Canine herpesvirus

Canine papillomavirus

Canine parainfluenza virus

Canine parvovirus

Canine respiratory coronavirus (CCV2)

Chagas disease

Chikungunya virus

Chlamydophila psittaci

Clostridium species

Coccidia

Cryptococcus

Cryptosporidium

Cytauxzoon felis

E. coli

Ehrlichia

Fading kitten syndrome

Feline calicivirus

Feline distemper

Feline enteric coronavirus

Feline foamy virus

Feline herpesvirus type 1

Feline immunodeficiency virus

Feline infectious anemia

Feline infectious peritonitis

Feline leukemia

Feline panleukopenia

Feline papillomavirus

Feline pneunomitis

Feline rhinotracheitis virus

Feline sarcoma virus

Feline syncytial virus

Francisella tularensis

Giardia

Group G strep

Haemobartonella canis

Haemobartonella felis

Helicobacter

Influenza

Lawsonia intracellularis

Leishmania

Leptospira

Lyme disease

MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staph aureus)

Mycoplasma canis

Mycoplasma felis

Mycoplasma haemocanis

Mycoplasma haemofelis

Neospora caninum

Pasteurella multocida

Pneumocystis carinii

Rabies

Reovirus screen

Rickettsia screen

Salmonella

Sarcocystis neurona

Streptococcus, Group G

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes

Streptococcus zooepidemicus

Toxoplasma gondii

Trichomonas/
Tritrichomonas

Trypanosoma cruzi

Tularemia

West Nile virus

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis


Helicobacter PCR test for dogs and cats

dog and cat assay data sheet

Helicobacter

Test codes:

B0021 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Helicobacter pylori by real time polymerase chain reaction

B0023 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Helicobacter heilmannii by real time polymerase chain reaction

P0010 - Ultrasensitive Helicobacter species screen by real time polymerase chain reaction.  This screen detects but does not differentiate H. pylori, H. heilmannii, H. bilis, H. hepaticus, H. rappini, H. felis, H. salomonis and other Helicobacter species.

P0011 - Ultrasensitive Helicobacter species identification by real time polymerase chain reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism.  This 2-stage assay detects and differentiates H. pylori, H. heilmannii, H. bilis, H. hepaticus, H. rappini, H. felis, H. salomonis and other Helicobacter species.

 

Many species of the genus Helicobacter have been identified in mammals and their pathogenicity varies. Some species can induce significant disease while others appear to merely colonize the gastrointestinal tract.

Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative spiral bacterium found in gastric mucosa and associated with active and chronic gastritis. H. pylori can establish a chronic, persistent infection, which may lead to gastric or duodenual ulcers, gastric cancer and gastric lymphomas. Studies have revealed that approximately 50% of the world’s human population is infected with H. pylori.

Biochemically, the bacterium produces catalase, oxidase and urease enzymes. The urease enzyme permits the bacterium to metabolize urea present in the gastric mucosa and establish a microenvironment favorable to the organism. H. pylori is a highly motile organism with multiple unipolar flagella. Both the urease enzyme and the flagella are considered to be important virulence factors.

Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in humans relies on upper endoscopy or the 13C-urea breath test (see review by Nakamura, 2001). Although the endoscopy procedure permits culture of the bacterium from biopsy specimens (the gold standard for diagnosis), demonstration of urease activity and histological detection of the germ, the procedure is expensive and invasive. The 13C-urea breath test is a well-established, relatively sensitive, specific and noninvasive method. Molecular tests, such as PCR, can also offer precise diagnosis of H. pylori infections. In fact, molecular testing by PCR can complement other diagnostic tests because it can be applied to archival fixed tissue, environmental samples, gastric fluid, oral secretions, and stool samples, in which traditional diagnostic tests do not have sensitivity and perform poorly. Studies have shown than PCR detection of H. pylori in gastric fluid specimens can reach a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 100% (Westblom et al., 1993; Yoshida et al., 1999). This capability is especially useful in monitoring active H. pylori infection in primates and other animals, as the breath test is difficult to conduct for these animals.

Helicobacter heilmannii (previously known as Gastrospirillum hominis) is a 4-10 m long, spiral-shaped, motile bacterium with three to eight coils, a wavelength of about 1 m, up to 14 uni- or bipolar flagella, and no periplasmic filaments. Gastric infection with Helicobacter heilmannii is associated with the development of chronic gastritis (found in the stomachs of 0.2 to 4% of patients with gastritis) and low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. Eradication of H. heilmannii by antibiotic treatment of patients can result in complete remission of MALT lymphoma, indicating a causal relationship between H. heilmannii infection and MALT lymphoma. Unlike H. pylori infections, gastric infections with H. heilmannii or Gastrospirillum-like organisms are not restricted to humans. A broad range of animals, including dogs, cats, pigs, and cattle, are naturally infected, with frequencies ranging from 80% to 100%. It has been suggested that H. heilmannii infection in humans is a zoonosis and that animals serve as a reservoir for transmission to humans.

Definitive culture of H. heilmannii has not been achieved to date (Anderson et al., 1996) and diagnosis of H. heilmannii infection is usually made on the basis of its distinct spiral morphology, compared with H. pylori, on silver- stained tissue sections. However, there are a number large gastric spiral organisms such as H. felis, H. salomonis, and H. bizzozeronii are indistinguishable from H. heilmannii on routine light microscopy, and H. pylori grown in a broth culture can also adopt a morphology identical to that of H. heilmannii (Fawcett et al., 1999). Molecular detection methods, such as PCR, are always required for more definitive identification (Trebesius et al., 2001).

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of H. heilmannii infection
  • Help ensure that animal groups are free of H. heilmannii
  • Early prevention of spread of this bacterium
  • Minimize personnel exposure to this bacterium
  • Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines that derive from animals

References:
Andersen, L.P., Norgaard, A., Holck, S., Blom, J. and Elsborg, L. (1996) Isolation of a "Helicobacter heilmannii"-like organism from the human stomach. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15:95-96.
Fawcett, P.T., Gibney, K.M. and Vinette, K.M. (1999) Helicobacter pylori can be induced to assume the morphology of Helicobacter heilmannii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:1045-1048.
Trebesius, K., Adler, K., Vieth, M., Stolte, M. and Haas, R. (2001) Specific detection and prevalence of Helicobacter heilmannii-like organisms in the human gastric mucosa by fluorescent in situ hybridization and partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:1510-1516.

Specimen requirement: 0.2 ml gastric lavage or feces, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed tissue.

For specimen types other than those listed here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology:
B0021, B0023, P0010 - Qualitative real time PCR
P0011 - Qualitative real time PCR + restriction fragment length polymorphism

Normal range: Nondetected

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