rodent and rabbit assay data sheet
S0224 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Seoul hantavirus
("Seoul virus") by
reverse transcription coupled real time PCR. This test is
specific for Seoul virus - see test code
S0135 for detection of other
Hantaviruses belong to the family
Bunyaviridae. There are 5 genera within the family:
bunyavirus, phlebovirus, nairovirus, tospovirus, and hantavirus.
Each is made up of negative-sensed, single-stranded RNA viruses.
All these genera are transmitted by insects, with the exception
of hantaviruses, which are rodent-borne.
Hantaviruses are enveloped viruses with a genome that consists of three
single-stranded negative RNA segments designated S (small), M
(medium), and L (large). The S RNA encodes the nucleocapsid (N)
protein. The M RNA encodes a polyprotein that is cleaved to
yield the envelope glycoproteins G1 and G2. The L RNA encodes
the L protein, which functions as the viral
Several members of the hantavirus genus cause Hemorrhagic Fever with
Renal Syndrome (HFRS) with various severity. Infected
individuals will usually develop symptoms of HFRS within 1 to 2
weeks, but in rare cases symptoms may take up to 8 weeks to
develop. Early symptoms include intense headaches, back and
abdominal pain, fever, chills, nausea, and blurred vision.
Occasionally, infected individuals may develop flushing of the
face, inflammation or redness of the eyes, or a rash. As disease
progresses, infected individuals may have low blood pressure,
acute shock, vascular leakage, and acute kidney failure, which
can cause severe fluid overload. The severity of the disease
varies depending upon the virus causing the infection. Hantaan
and Dobrava virus infections usually cause severe symptoms,
while Seoul, Saaremaa, and Puumala virus infections are usually
more moderate. Complete recovery can take weeks or months.
The four viruses that are associated with HFRS are named for the region
from which they were first isolated. These viruses have
different primary hosts:
Apodemus agrarius (striped field mouse) for Hantaan virus,
(Norway rat) and Rattus
rattus (black rat) for Seoul virus,
(bank vole) for Puumala virus, and
Apodemus flavicollis (yellow-necked field mouse) for Dobrava virus.
Hantaan virus and Dobrava virus are associated with a severe
form of HFRS with an estimated mortality rate of 5% to 15%.
Seoul virus causes a more moderate form of HFRS, but has a much
wider world distribution than the other viruses in this group.
Serologic evidence for infection with Seoul hantavirus has been
found in rodents in major cities of the United States, and this
virus was recently implicated in human cases of HFRS in
Baltimore, Wisconsin and Illinois, and possibly other US states
Serological testing of Seoul hantavirus infection is usually inadequate
due to cross-reactivity with other viruses. Confirmation of
Seoul hantavirus diagnosis, however, can be easily performed
using PCR detection of the virus in samples of blood, tissue or
other excretions from infected animals (Vaheri et al., 2008).
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical
diagnosis of this virus
Help ensure that rodent populations and colonies are free of
Early prevention of spread of this virus among a
population or in a geographic area
Minimize human exposure to this virus
Safety monitoring of biological products that derive
Vaheri, A., Vapalahti, O. and Plyusnin, A. (2008) How to diagnose
hantavirus infections and detect them in rodents and
insectivores. Rev. Med. Virol. 18:277-88.
1 fecal pellet, or 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or
ACD (yellow top) tube, or environmental wipes/swabs,
or 0.2 ml cell culture.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or
during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped
and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping
requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped
so as to remain frozen in transit. See
shipping instructions for more information.
2 business days
reverse transcription coupled real time polymerase chain