wildlife and zoo assay data sheet
Test code: B0083 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of
Vibrio bacteria by real time polymerase chain reaction. This
assay detects but does not differentiate
V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. anguillarum, V. cholerae, V.
furnissii, V. vulnificus, V. harveyi.
Vibrio is a genus of curved rod-shaped gram negative bacteria
that includes several pathogenic species. Most
Vibrio bacteria inhabit saltwater, though some species are also
found in brackish or fresh water.
They are facultative anaerobes that test positive for
oxidase and do not form spores. All members of the genus are
motile with polar flagella.
Vibrio bacteria pathogenic to humans include V. cholerae (the causative
agent of cholera), V. parahaemolyticus, and V.
Infection with V. cholerae is usually a result of
drinking contaminated water, whereas infections with
and V. vulnificus are
usually caused by eating undercooked contaminated seafood.
Although V. parahaemolyticus is the most common
noncholera Vibrio species reported to cause illness in
humans, V. vulnificus is associated with up to 94% of
noncholera Vibrio infection-related deaths. Human
infection with these bacteria usually causes gastroenteritis but
Vibrio species can
also infect open wounds and cause septicemia. Severe infections
can be fatal.
Vibrio species can cause diseases in a range of animal species.
Marine crustaceans and fish can be carriers of various
Vibrio infections can
spread rapidly through aquaculture facilities and can result in
In the past, conventional
detection of Vibrio
bacteria relied on isolation procedures by growing the bacteria
in enrichment broth followed by plating on selective media. The
process is laborious and time consuming. Furthermore, the
biochemical properties of
Vibrio species are similar to those of other bacteria such
as Aeromonas species; this has often made unambiguous isolation of
Vibrio difficult. On
the other hand, detection of
Vibrio bacteria by PCR
is rapid and sensitive (Maheshwari et al., 2011).
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of
Help ensure that animals and facilities are free of Vibrio
Early prevention of spread of Vibrio
Minimize human exposure to Vibrio
Safety monitoring of biological products that derive from
Maheshwari, M., Krishnaiah, N. and Ramana, D.B.V. (2011)
Evaluation of polymerase chain reaction for the detection of
Vibrio cholerae in contaminants. Annals Biol. Res.,
0.2 ml of blood collected in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow
top), or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed tissue, or wound swab, feces, water sample, bacterial culture, food
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or
during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped
and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping
requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped
so as to remain frozen in transit. See
shipping instructions for
Turnaround time: 2 business days
Qualitative real time
polymerase chain reaction
Normal range: Nondetected