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Zoologix performs environmental, zoo, wildlife and aquatic PCR tests for...

Aeromonas hydrophila

African swine fever

Aleutian disease

Amphibian panel



Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

Baylisascaris procyonis

Borna virus

Borrelia burgdorferi



Canine distemper

Canine parvovirus

Chytrid fungus

Citrobacter freundii

Classical swine fever





Coxiella burnetii


Cryptosporidium serpentis

Cryptosporidium varanii (formerly saurophilum)

Delftia acidovorans

E. coli O157:H7

E. coli panel





Epizootic hemorrhagic disease

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)

Feline panleukopenia

Ferret respiratory enteric coronavirus




Hepatitis E


Japanese encephalitis

Johne's disease

Kangaroo herpesviruses


Lawsonia intracellularis




Listeria monocytogenes

Lyme disease

Macropodid (kangaroo) herpesviruses

Mink enteritis virus


Mycobacteria in mammals, amphibians and fish

Mycoplasma mustelae

Mycoplasma species

Neospora caninum

Nipah virus

Pasteurella multocida

Porcine cytomegalovirus

Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus

Porcine parvovirus

Pseudocapillaria tomentosa

Pseudoloma neurophilia


Q fever



Reovirus screen


Rift Valley fever



Sarcocystis neurona

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

St. Louis encephalitis

Strep pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes

Swine vesicular disease

Toxoplasma gondii

Treponema pallidum


Trypanosoma cruzi

Trypanosoma evansi


Valley Fever

Vesicular stomatitis


West Nile virus

White nose syndrome

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

Encephalomyocarditis PCR test
wildlife and zoo assay data sheet

Encephalomyocarditis (EMCV)

Test code:
S0069 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of encephalomyocarditis virus by reverse transcription coupled real time polymerase chain reaction


Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a single stranded picornavirus belonging to the cardiovirus genus that infects many animal species including pigs, rodents, cattle, elephants, raccoons , marsupials, baboons, macaques, chimpanzees and humans . Rats and mice are the natural hosts of the virus, but pigs are the most commonly and severely infected domestic animals. The ability of this virus to cause interspecies infections had led to numerous outbreaks in zoos in Australia and the United States (Reddacliff et al., 1997; Wells and Gutter, 1989). These outbreaks involved multiple animal species including lemurs, squirrels, macaques, mandrills, chimpanzees, hippopotami, kangaroos and possibly humans. Humans infected with this virus had been shown to have fever, neck stiffness, lethargy, delirium, headaches, or vomiting (Gajdusek, 1955; Murname, 1981). In recent years, there has been renewed interest in this virus, especially in pig-to-human transmission, because of advances in xenotransplantation as a means of overcoming the acute shortage of transplantation tissues and organs for humans.

In primates, encephalomyocarditis virus can cause necrotizing and interstitial myocarditis in gibbons and owl monkeys. Infected rhesus monkeys can develop encephalomyelitis and paralysis but they may recover.

In the past, diagnosis of EMCV was based on virus isolation and identification. This method is time-consuming and the virus is difficult to isolate from infected animals. Experimental EMCV infection in pigs showed that virus could no longer be isolated after 3 days post-infection (Foni et al., 1992), but the virus may continually persist for a long period in infected pigs without any clinical signs (Billinis et al., 1999). Confirmation of this pathogen has relied upon the development of circulating antibody, but this diagnostic approach is not reliable because a recent study in pigs has shown that some infected pigs may not develop antibodies against EMCV (Brewer et al., 2001).

EMCV detection by PCR is the most rapid, sensitive and specific method for the diagnosis of this infection. PCR methodology can reduce the frequency of false negative diagnoses of this virus.


  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Help ensure that animal groups or populations are free of EMCV
  • Early prevention of spread of this virus among a population
  • Minimize human exposure to this virus

Reddacliff, L. A., P. D. Kirland, W. J. Hartley, and R. L. Reece. (1997) Encephalomyocarditis virus infections in an Australian zoo. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 28:153-157.
Wells, S. K., and A. E. Gutter. (1989). Encephalomyocarditis virus: epizootic in a zoological collection. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 20:291-296.
Gajdusek, C. (1955). Encephalomyocarditis infection in childhood. Pediatrics 16:819.
Murname, T. G. 1981. Encephalomyocarditis, p. 137-147. In G. W. Beran (ed.), CRC handbook series in zoonoses, section B, vol. 2. Viral zoonoses. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.
Foni, E., Barigazzi, G., Sidoli, L., Marcato, P.S., Sarli, G., Della Salda, L. and Spinaci , M. (1993). Experimental Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in pigs. J. Vet. Med. 40:347–352.
Billinis, C., Paschaleri-Papadopoulou, E., Psychas, V., Vlemmas, J., Leontides, S., Koumbati, M., Kyriakis, S.C. and Papadopoulos , O. (1999) Persistence of Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection in piglets. Vet. Microbiol. 70:171–177.
Brewer, L.A., Lwamba, H.C., Murtaugh, M.P., Palmenberg, A.C., Brown, C. and Njenga, M.K.(2001) Porcine encephalomyocarditis virus persists in pig myocardium and infects human myocardial cells. J.Virol. 75:11621-11629

Specimen requirement: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or 0.2 ml plasma or serum, or 0.2 ml fresh or frozen tissue.

Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative reverse transcription coupled real time PCR

Normal range: Nondetected

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