wildlife and zoo assay data sheet
Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of porcine
cytomegalovirus by real time PCR
Herpesviruses are widely distributed and have been found in
insects, reptiles, amphibians and every species of bird and
mammal. One important characteristic of herpesvirus infection is
that the virus persists in the infected host for life and is
frequently reactivated and shed. In pigs, five herpesviruses
have been identified: three recently identified lymphotrophic
herpesviruses, pseudorabies virus and porcine cytomegalovirus
inclusion body rhinitis and abortion or neonatal piglet losses
in pigs. On microscopic examination, CMV infection causes large
intranuclear inclusion bodies in infected cells. In pigs, a
major site of infection tends to be the turbinates and the rest
of the upper respiratory tract. Clinically, inclusion body
rhinitis is often confused with atrophic rhinitis, another upper
respiratory tract disease of multiple etiologies.
CMV, porcine CMV crosses the placenta and infects fetuses, with
resulting congenital infections. In susceptible herds, infection
with PCMV can lead to fetal and piglet death, runting, rhinitis,
pneumonia, and poor weight gain. In herds where management
conditions tend to be good or exceptional, the virus may be
endemic without causing any apparent clinical disease or
economic loss. However, these infected animals can be latent
carriers of the virus.
to this virus have been found in a high percentage of swine
herds worldwide. Because of the high prevalence of positive
serology, serological identification of infected pigs is not
useful. Many latent carriers remain unidentified, posing serious
problems with research using the pig as a model. In
xenotransplantation between pig and human, reactivation of the
latent virus can cause postransplantation failure. Molecular
detection of the virus is an important tool that can provide
rapid, sensitive and specific detection of the viral nucleic
acid in suspected animals (Hamel et al., 1999).
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Identify PCMV carriers
Help ensure that animal colonies and populations are free of
Early prevention of spread of the virus among animals
Minimize human exposure to the virus
Safety monitoring of biological products that derive
Hamel, A.L., Lin, L., Sachvie, C., Grudeski, E., and Nayar,
G.P.S. (1999) Assay for Detecting Porcine Cytomegalovirus. J
Clin Microbiol. 37: 3767–3768.
Specimen requirements: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top)
tube, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed tissue.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See shipping
instructions for more information.
2 business days
Qualitative real time PCR