Moving reptiles?  Use our snake and lizard quarantine PCR panel to avoid spreading contagious agents.

Ruminating about hoofstock issues?  Try our ruminant fecal screening PCR panel - tests for most common GI pathogens in wild & domestic ruminants.

In over your head? Try our waterborne pathogens PCR panel - detection of 7 different environmental pathogens by real time PCR.

Something fishy going on in your tanks? Try our new Zebrafish screening PCR panel - tests for 6 different pathogen categories from one easy-to-collect sample.

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Zoologix performs environmental, zoo, wildlife and aquatic PCR tests for...

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wildlife and zoo assay data sheet

Camelpox (CMLV)

Test code:
S0229 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of camelpox virus by real time PCR

 

Camelpox virus (CMLV) belongs to the family poxviridae, subfamily chordopoxvirinae, genus Orthopoxvirus. This DNA virus infects both old world camelids (eg dromedaries and Bactrian camels) and new world camelids (eg llamas and alpacas).  The virus was first reported in Russia and later in India. The disease occurs throughout camel breeding areas of Northern Africa, the Middle East, and Asia, but has not been reported in wild camels in Australia.

Infected animals can develop fever, local or generalized pox lesions on the skin and in the mucous membranes of the mouth and respiratory tract. Lesions follow the usual pattern of pox lesions, tending to be most concentrated around the face, including eyelids, nostrils, and margins of the pinnae. In severe cases, the whole head may be swollen and intense pruritus may be seen. Later, skin lesions may extend to the neck, limbs, genitalia, mammary glands, and perineum. However, not all infected animals develop symptoms; the clinical manifestation can range from asymptomatic infection to severe systemic infection and death. Young animals and pregnant females are more susceptible and usually develop more severe symptoms. Camelpox is characterized by high morbidity and a relatively high mortality rate in young animals.

The virus is usually transmitted either by direct contact between infected and susceptible animals or by exposure to a contaminated environment. The virus has the ability to remain virulent for up to 4 months without a host. The virus may also be transmitted by insects, in particular camel ticks (Hyalomma dromedarii).

Camelpox virus is typically host specific and normally does not infect non-camelid species. However, zoonotic camelpox viral infection in humans associated with outbreaks in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) was described in northeastern India in 2009.

Camelpox infection can sometimes be diagnosed based on clinical signs in affected animals. However, the symptoms can be confused with diseases caused by contagious ecthyma (orf-parapox virus), papillomatosis or insect bites. Laboratory testing is needed to definitively diagnose the disease-causing agent. Conventional serological tests such as haemagglutination, haemagglutination inhibition, neutralization, indirect ELISA, complement fixation, and fluorescent antibody assays have been described to detect CMLV antibodies, but these tests are time consuming, labor intensive, and less sensitive, so they are generally not suitable for primary diagnosis. Molecular detection by PCR is sensitive, specific and rapid, and should be considered in diagnosis of the disease (Balamurugan et al., 2009).

Utilities:

  • Help confirm the disease causing agent
  • Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of camelpox
  • Help ensure that camel herds and wild camelid populations are free of camelpox
  • Early prevention of spread of this virus among a herd or population, or between species
  • Environmental monitoring for this virus
  • Minimize human exposure to this virus
  • Safety monitoring of products that derive from camelids

References:
Balamurugan, V., Bhanuprakash, V., Hosamani, M., Kallesh, D.J., Bina Chauhan, Venkatesan, G., Singh, R.K. (2009) A polymerase chain reaction strategy for the diagnosis of camelpox. J. Vet. Diag. Invest. 21:231–237..

Specimen requirement: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or 0.2 ml serum, or 0.2 ml urine, or lesion swab, or pus swab, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed tissue.

Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.

For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See shipping instructions for more information.

Turnaround time: 2 business days

Methodology: Qualitative real time polymerase chain reaction

Normal range: Nondetected

Camelpox virus PCR test

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