Influenza A PCR test for canine and feline
dog and cat assay data sheet
NOTE: THIS TEST IS NOT PERFORMED ON
SAMPLES TAKEN FROM BIRDS OWNED OR LOCATED IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA.
- Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of influenza A virus by reverse transcription coupled real time polymerase chain reaction. This assay detects
but does not differentiate most known strains of influenza A viruses,
including H1N1, H2N2, H3N2, H3N8, H4N6,
H5N1, H5N2, H7N2, H7N7, H8N4 and H9N2.
S0077 is included
on P0019 - canine respiratory
panel and P0020 - feline
and P0051 - dog show panel
Influenza is a
severe acute upper respiratory infection, and typical symptoms include
pyrexia, dyspnea, anorexia and coughing.
subtypes and strains of influenza viruses infect humans,
swine, birds, horses and other animals. Among these different strains,
the canine influenza virus (H3N8) has only recently emerged, with the
first recognized outbreak occurring on a racetrack in Florida in
Zoologix assay S0077 detects canine influenza but does not
differentiate it from other influenza strains also detected by this
assay. Dogs are not
usually susceptible to most other influenza viruses; however, an
unpublished study carried out in 2005 by the National Institute of
Animal Health in Bangkok indicated that dogs could be infected
with avian influenza virus, although no associated disease was detected.
differences among influenza viruses normally impede cross-species
infection. However, a study published in September 2004 demonstrated
that domestic cats can become infected with the H5N1 avian influenza virus and are
capable of transmitting the virus to other cats (http://www.avma.org/public_health/influenza/avian_faq.asp;
http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/qa.htm ). In February 2006,
authorities in Germany reported that a domestic cat had died from H5N1
avian influenza. That cat lived in the northern island of Ruegen,
where more than 100 wild birds are believed to have died of the
disease, and it likely contracted the disease by eating one of those
infected birds. In March 2006, three cats in Austria were confirmed to
be ill with the H5N1 virus. These cats were among 170 living in an
animal shelter where the disease had been detected in chickens a month
earlier. Prior to confirmation of these feline cases, there had been
anecdotal reports of H5N1 infection in domestic cats in southeast Asia
Large cats kept in
captivity can be infected with avian influenza as well. In December
2003, two tigers and two leopards that were fed fresh chicken
carcasses from a local slaughterhouse died at a zoo in Thailand. Avian
influenza virus H5N1 was identified in their tissue samples. In
February and March 2004, the virus was detected in a clouded leopard
and white tiger, respectively, both of which died in a zoo near
Bangkok. In October 2004, 147 of 441 captive tigers in a zoo in
Thailand died or were euthanized as a result of infection after
being fed raw chicken carcasses. Results of a subsequent investigation
suggested that at least some tiger-to-tiger transmission occurred in
Because the spread of influenza viruses is
airborne, one infected animal can quickly
spread influenza to other animals with only casual contact. Rapid
testing of suspected influenza cases is thus essential to control
of the disease.
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical
diagnosis of influenza
Help ensure that animal populations are free of influenza
Early prevention of spread of this virus
Minimize personnel exposure to this virus
Daly, J. M., Lai, A.C.K., Binns, M.M., Chambers, T.M., Barrandeguy, M.
and Mumford, J.A. (1996) Antigenic and genetic evolution of equine
H3N8 influenza A viruses. J. Gen. Virol. 77:661-671.
A., and Wood, J.M. (1993) WHO/OIE meeting: consultation on newly
emerging strains of equine influenza. Vaccine 11:1172-1175.
International des Epizooties (OIE) (2000) Equine influenza, p.
546-557. In Manual of standards for diagnostic tests and vaccines.
OIE, Paris, France.
Quinlivan, M., Cullinane, A., Nelly, M., Van
Maanen, K., Heldens, J. and Arkins, S. (2004) Comparison of
sensitivities of virus isolation, antigen detection, and nucleic acid
amplification for detection of equine influenza virus. J. Clin.
van Maanen, C. and Cullinane, A. (2002)
Equine influenza virus infections: an update. Vet. Q. 24:79-94.
Webster, R. G. (1993) Are equine 1 influenza viruses still present in
horses? Equine Vet. J. 25:537-538.
tracheal swab or nasopharyngeal swab.
preferred sample: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) tube.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions. For all specimen types, if
there will be a delay in shipping, or during very warm weather,
refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless
more stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen specimens
should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit. See
shipping instructions for more
Qualitative reverse transcription coupled real time PCR