Simian T-cell lymphotropic/leukemia virus (STLV) types 1 and 2
- Qualitative detection of STLV type 1 by polymerase chain
- Qualitative detection of STLV type 2 by polymerase chain
- Qualitative screen for
primate T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic viruses (STLV and HTLV) by
real time polymerase chain reaction
T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) is divided into two serologically
and genetically distinct types (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2). Both types
have a simian relative: HTLV-1 is related to simian T-cell
leukemia virus type 1 (STLV-1) and HTLV-2 is related to STLV-2.
STLV-1 infects a wide range of wild nonhuman primates (NHPs).
Natural infection with STLV-1 can be found among macaques,
guenons, mangabeys, baboons, and apes in Asia and Africa.
However, STLV-2 has only been identified in captive bonobos (Pan
paniscus). The natural occurrence of STLV-2 is still
unknown. HTLVs and STLVs are collectively called primate T-cell
leukemia virus (PTLV).
of occupational safety and animal health, as well as to improve
the quality of nonhuman primates (NHPs) used in biomedical
research, the establishment and maintenance of specific
retrovirus-free breeding colonies of NHPs such as macaques are
now high priorities. Viruses which have a widespread occurrence
and a strong potential for cross-species transmission such as
STLV top the priority list. Although virus isolation can be used
to diagnose STLV virus infection, it requires a long period of
time to obtain results. Furthermore, viral culture is neither
sensitive nor specific, and increases the potential risk of
laboratory workers contacting this virus. Serological detection
of STLV infection is also not very reliable, sensitive or
specific. False negative and false positive results occur
frequently. A recent study has shown that experimental infection
of macaques with STLV-I can be serologically silent for more
than 43 months.
detection by PCR is the most rapid, sensitive and specific
method for the diagnosis of this infection. The method can also
differentiate the virus from other closely related
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Help ensure that animal colonies are free of STLV
Early prevention of spread of this virus among a colony
Minimize personnel exposure to this virus
Safety monitoring of biological products and vaccines
that derive from primates
Specimen requirement: 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top)
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See shipping
instructions for more information.
2 business days
and S0015 - Qualitative PCR
Qualitative real time PCR