primate assay data sheet
– Qualitative detection of Mycoplasma
pneumoniae by polymerase chain reaction.
Ultrasensitive Mycoplasma screen by real time PCR. This
screen detects but does not differentiate M. arginini, M.
fermentans, M. hominis, M. hyorhinis, M. orale, M. pirum, M.
salivarium, M. agassizii, M. cynos and others. This screen
does not detect M. pneumoniae or M. pulmonis.
are gram-negative bacteria due to their absence of a cell wall.
Because of this characteristic, these bacteria are not
responsive to many common antibiotics such as penicillin or
other beta-lactam antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis.
There are more than 100
recognized species in the genus Mycoplasma.
Some species cause disease
in humans, such as M.
pneumoniae which causes atypical pneumonia and other
respiratory disorders, and
M. genitalium which is linked to pelvic inflammatory
pneumoniae was first linked to respiratory infection more than one hundred years
ago. M. pneumoniae can
be transmitted through close contact via respiratory droplets.
M. pneumoniae has a surface receptor which enables attachment to the
host cell surface. This receptor can attach to a number of
different cell types such as respiratory tract epithelia and red
blood cells. At high concentrations,
M. pneumoniae can
inhibit ciliary action within the respiratory tract and cause
cell necrosis. This damage is caused by cytotoxins from
M. pneumoniae as well
as indirectly from the host immune response.
Many other Mycoplasma
species are found in research laboratories as contaminants
in cell culture due to contamination from lab staff or
contaminated cell culture medium ingredients.
Contamination rates by Mycoplasma species in established
have been reported at 15-35%, with even higher occurrence cited
in some populations.
may induce cellular changes,
including chromosome aberrations and changes in metabolism and
cell growth. Severe Mycoplasma infections may even
destroy a cell line.
Therefore biological products derived from these cultures must
be screened routinely to ensure product stability and integrity.
number of techniques have been used to detect
DNA probe, enzyme immunoassays, PCR, plating on sensitive agar
and staining with a DNA stain including DAPI or Hoechst. Among
these, PCR is the most commonly used method due to its high
sensitivity and specificity.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae on the other hand is difficult and slow to grow in culture media.
However, molecular detection of M. pneumoniae by PCR is
highly sensitive and specific, with fast turnaround time, so PCR
is useful for detecting this species.
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical diagnosis of
Help ensure that animal populations are free of Mycoplasma
Early prevention of spread of Mycoplasma species
Minimize personnel exposure to Mycoplasma species
Preservation of cell cultures
Safety monitoring of biological products
Armstrong, S.E., Mariano, J.A. and Lundin, D.J. (2010)
The scope of Mycoplasma contamination within the biopharmaceutical
Maczyńska, B., Matusiewicz, K.,
Chiciak, J., Stankiewicz, M.,
Sozańska, B. and Boznański, A.
(2002) Comparison of detectability of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in
children, using PCR-test
and serological methods: indirect immunofluorescence and
immunoenzymatic assay. Clin.
Microbiol. and Infect. 8 (Suppl. 1):
0.2 ml whole blood
in EDTA (purple top) or ACD (yellow top) tube, or 0.2 ml serum,
CSF or bronchial lavage, or 0.2 ml fresh, frozen or fixed
tissue, or nasopharyngeal swab, throat swab or vaginal swab, or 0.2 ml culture.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or
during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped
and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping
requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped
so as to remain frozen in transit. See
shipping instructions for
Turnaround time: 2 business days
B0002 - Qualitative
B0009 - Qualitative real time PCR
Normal range: Nondetected