wildlife and zoo assay data sheet
- Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Helicobacter
heilmannii by real time polymerase chain reaction
- Ultrasensitive Helicobacter species screen by nested
polymerase chain reaction
Ultrasensitive Helicobacter species identification by nested
polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length
Helicobacter heilmannii (previously known as
Gastrospirillum hominis) is a 4-10 Ám long, spiral-shaped,
motile bacterium with three to eight coils, a wavelength of
about 1 Ám, up to 14 uni- or bipolar flagella, and no
periplasmic filaments. Gastric infection with Helicobacter
heilmannii is associated with the development of chronic
gastritis (found in the stomachs of 0.2 to 4% of patients with
gastritis) and low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
lymphoma in humans. Eradication of H. heilmannii by antibiotic
treatment of patients can result in complete remission of MALT
lymphoma, indicating a causal relationship between H.
heilmannii infection and MALT lymphoma. Unlike H. pylori
infections, gastric infections with H. heilmannii or
Gastrospirillum-like organisms are not restricted to humans. A
broad range of animals, including dogs, cats, pigs, and
cattle, are naturally infected, with frequencies ranging from
80% to 100%. It has been suggested that H. heilmannii
infection in humans is a zoonosis and that animals serve as a
reservoir for transmission to humans.
Definitive culture of H. heilmannii has not
been achieved to date (Anderson et al., 1996) and diagnosis of
H. heilmannii infection is usually made on the basis of its
distinct spiral morphology, compared with H. pylori, on
silver- stained tissue sections. However, there are a number
large gastric spiral organisms such as H. felis, H. salomonis,
and H. bizzozeronii are indistinguishable from H. heilmannii
on routine light microscopy, and H. pylori grown in a broth
culture can also adopt a morphology identical to that of H.
heilmannii (Fawcett et al., 1999). Molecular detection
methods, such as PCR, are always required for more definitive
identification (Trebesius et al., 2001).
- Confirm the disease causing agent
- Shorten the time required to confirm a
clinical diagnosis of H. heilmannii infection
- Ensure that animal colonies are free of
- Early prevention of spread of this
bacterium among a colony
- Minimize personnel exposure to this
- Safety monitoring of biological products
and vaccines that derive from animals
Andersen, L.P., Norgaard, A., Holck, S., Blom, J. and
Elsborg, L. (1996) Isolation of a "Helicobacter heilmannii"-like
organism from the human stomach. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol.
Infect. Dis. 15:95-96.
Fawcett, P.T., Gibney, K.M. and Vinette, K.M. (1999)
Helicobacter pylori can be induced to assume the morphology of
Helicobacter heilmannii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:1045-1048.
Trebesius, K., Adler, K., Vieth, M., Stolte, M. and Haas, R.
(2001) Specific detection and prevalence of Helicobacter
heilmannii-like organisms in the human gastric mucosa by
fluorescent in situ hybridization and partial 16S ribosomal
DNA sequencing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:1510-1516.
Specimen requirement: 1 ml
gastric lavage or feces or tissue shipped overnight at room
temperature; or tissue shipped frozen.
For specimen types other than those listed
here, please call to confirm specimen acceptability and
For all specimen types, if there will be a
delay in shipping, or during very warm weather, refrigerate
specimens until shipped and ship with a cold pack unless more
stringent shipping requirements are specified. Frozen
specimens should be shipped so as to remain frozen in transit.
See shipping instructions for
Turnaround time: 2 business
real time PCR
Normal range: Nondetected