rodent and rabbit assay data sheet
S0135 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of Hantavirus by
reverse transcription coupled real time PCR. This test does not
detect Seoul virus - see test code
S0224 for Seoul virus detection.
is included on P0029 - Mouse
are a group of viruses that are transmitted by rodents through
urine, droppings, and saliva. One of them, Sin Nombre
virus, is found in deer mice in North America. Sin Nombre
virus is the cause of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) in
Hantaviruses belong to the Bunyaviridae family of
viruses. There are five genera in this family:
Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus,
Hantavirus. Like all
members of this family, hantaviruses have a genome comprised of
three negative-sense single-stranded RNA segments, and so are
classified as negative sense RNA viruses.
of dust contaminated by rodent excreta or saliva can result in
transmission of these viruses to humans. Infected people will
develop HPS one to six weeks after inhaling the virus. The
disease begins with 2-6 days of flu-like illness including
fever, muscle soreness, headache, nausea, vomiting and fatigue.
As the disease progresses it causes shortness of breath due to
fluid filled lungs; hospital care is then required. It is
usually a serious infection and about 1 out of 3 infected
patients have died.
mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) is the main carrier of
hantaviruses in the western United States but other wild rodents
may also be potential carriers. The deer mouse can carry and
shed the virus without showing any clinical signs. In one study
of over 1,100 deer mice in Washington State,
it was shown that about 14% had been infected with Sin Nombre virus.
HPS is not
known to be transmitted from one person to another, nor to be
transmitted by farm animals, dogs, cats or rodents purchased
from pet stores.
detection of these viruses is not effective in identifying
rodents that are shedding virus because many wild-caught rodents
may have had past exposure and thus antibodies to the viruses.
Studies have shown that even if infected animals have not
mounted a detectable antibody response, the virus may be
detected by PCR. When infected animals progress to a chronic
carrier state, antibody level may remain detectable but does not
correlate with the shedding of virus. PCR detection of the virus
in blood, saliva, urine or feces can confirm shedding of viruses
by infected animals (Kuenzi et al., 2005).
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Shorten the time required to confirm a clinical
diagnosis of hantavirus
Help ensure that rodent populations and colonies are free of
Early prevention of spread of hantavirus among a
population or in a geographic area
Minimize human exposure to hantavirus
Safety monitoring of biological products that derive
Douglass, R.J., Bond, C.W., Calisher, C.H. and Mills, J.N.
(2005) Long-term dynamics of Sin Nombre viral RNA and
antibody in deer mice in Montana. J. Wildl. Dis. 41:473-481.
1 fecal pellet, or 0.2 ml whole blood in EDTA (purple top) or
ACD (yellow top) tube, or environmental wipes/swabs,
or 0.2 ml cell culture.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
For all specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or
during very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped
and ship with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping
requirements are specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped
so as to remain frozen in transit. See
shipping instructions for more information.
2 business days
reverse transcription coupled real time polymerase chain