Ultrasensitive qualitative detection but not differentiation
of the three most commonly-encountered horse tapeworms by
multiplex real time PCR.
species of tapeworms,
Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna, and
can be found as adults in horses.
A. perfoliata is the
most common of the three, with prevalence rates in horses
ranging from 18 to 82% depending on the geographical region.
Infection of equines with cestodes such as tapeworms was
previously thought to be relatively harmless, but recent reports
have suggested potential pathogenicity in horses due to
significant gastrointestinal disease or even death caused by
a tapeworm infection can be made by means of fecal examination,
but this method is labor intensive and not very sensitive or
specific. The procedure is based on the coprological
demonstration of eggs by flotation and sedimentation techniques.
Various studies have shown sensitivities of only 11 to 61%,
indicating that these coprological techniques are inadequate for
diagnosing equine cestodosis (Proudman and Edwards, 1992; Ihler
et al., 1995).
detection of tapeworm infection is also not very satisfactory,
as it has a sensitivity of no more than 68% (Hoglund et al.,
1995; Proudman and Trees, 1996a, b). The low sensitivity of
coprological and serological techniques calls for the use of
more sensitive methods. Molecular detection by PCR is by far the
most sensitive and specific method for detecting these tapeworms
(Drogemuller et al., 2004).
Help confirm the disease causing agent
Shorten the time required to confirm the presence of
Help ensure that herds are free of these tapeworms
Early prevention of spread of these parasites among a
herd or to other animals
Minimize human exposure to tapeworms
Drogemuller, M., Beelitz, P., Pfister, K., Schnieder, T. and von
Samson-Himmelstjerna, G. (2004) Amplification of ribosomal DNA
of Anoplocephalidae: Anoplocephala perfoliata diagnosis by PCR
as a possible alternative to coprological methods.Vet
Höglund, J. Ljungström, B.-L.,
Nilsson, O. and Uggla, A. (1995) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent
assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies to Anoplocephala
perfoliata in horse sera, Vet. Parasitol. 59:97–106.
C.F., Rootwelt, V., Heyeraas, A. and Dolvik, N.I. (1995) The
prevalence and epidemiology of Anoplocephala perfoliata
infection in Norway. Vet. Res. Commun. 19: 487–494.
C.J. and Edwards, G.B. (1992) Validation of a
centrifugation/flotation techniques for the diagnosis of equine
cestodiasis. Vet. Rec. 131: 71–72.
Proudman, C.J. and Trees,
A.J. (1996a) Use of excretory/secretory antigens for the
serodiagnosis of Anoplocephala perfoliata cestodosis. Vet.
Proudman, C.J. and Trees, A.J. (1996b)
Correlation of antigen specific IgG and IgG(T) responses with
Anoplocephala perfoliata infection intensity in the horse,
Parasite Immunol. 18:499–506.
Specimen requirements: 0.2 ml feces or rectal swab.
Contact Zoologix if advice is needed to determine an appropriate specimen type for a specific diagnostic application. For specimen types not listed here, please contact Zoologix to confirm specimen acceptability and shipping instructions.
specimen types, if there will be a delay in shipping, or during
very warm weather, refrigerate specimens until shipped and ship
with a cold pack unless more stringent shipping requirements are
specified. Frozen specimens should be shipped so as to remain
frozen in transit. See shipping
instructions for more information.
2 business days
Qualitative multiplex real time PCR